Taking the moment to discover the Latin and also Greek root of the words is critical to expertise the vocabulary that anatomy and also physiology. Once you know the names of muscles it will aid you remember whereby the muscles are located and what they perform (Figure 11.3.1, figure 11.3.2, and Table 11.2).
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Figure 11.3.1 – synopsis of the Muscular System: ~ above the anterior and also posterior views of the muscular system above, superficial muscles (those in ~ the surface) are displayed on the ideal side of the human body while deep muscle (those underneath the superficial muscles) are shown on the left half of the body. For the legs, superficial muscles are shown in the anterior watch while the posterior view reflects both superficial and also deep muscles.Figure 11.32 – Understanding a Muscle surname from the Latin: here are two examples of just how root words describe the location and role of muscles
|ad||to; toward||ADvance towards your goal|
|sub||under||SUBmarines move under water.|
|ductor||something that moves||A conDUCTOR makes a train move.|
|anti||against||If you room antisocial, girlfriend are against engaging in social activities.|
|epi||on peak of||n/a|
|apo||to the next of||n/a|
|longissimus||longest||“Longissimus” is longer than the word “long.”|
|medius||medium||“Medius” and also “medium” both start with “med.”|
|rectus||straight||To RECTify a instance is to straighten it out.|
|multi||many||If miscellaneous is MULTIcolored, that has many colors.|
|uni||one||A UNIcorn has actually one horn.|
|bi/di||two||If a ring is DIcast, that is made of two metals.|
|tri||three||TRIple the amount of money is 3 times together much.|
|quad||four||QUADruplets space four youngsters born at one birth.|
Anatomists surname the skeletal muscle according to a variety of criteria, every of which explains the muscle in part way. These include naming the muscle after its shape, size, fiber direction, location, number of origins or the action.The name of some muscles reflect their shape. For example, the deltoid is a large, triangular-shaped muscle the covers the shoulder. The is so-named because the Greek letter delta is a triangle.The skeletal muscle’s anatomical ar or its relationship to a specific bone regularly determines its name. Because that example, the frontalis muscle is located on top of the frontal bone the the skull. Other instances are muscles of the eight that encompass the hatchet brachii (of the arm).For the buttocks, the size of the muscles impacts the names: gluteus maximus (largest), gluteus medius (medium), and also the gluteus minimus (smallest). One more example space the pectoral muscles including major or minor.Names are frequently used to indicate length—brevis (short), longus (long)Some muscles suggest their positions loved one to the midline: lateralis (to the external away from the midline), and also medialis (toward the midline).The direction of the muscle fibers and also fascicles are supplied to define muscles. For example, the ab muscles all suggested the direction the the fibers such as the rectus (straight), the obliques (at one angle) and also the transverse (horizontal) muscles the the abdomen.Some muscle names show the number of muscles in a group. One instance of this is the quadriceps, a team of four muscles located on the anterior (front) thigh.Other muscle name can carry out information regarding how countless origins a specific muscle has, such as the biceps brachii. The prefix bi shows that the muscle has two origins and tri indicates three origins.The place of a muscle’s attachments can likewise appear in its name. Once the name of a muscle is based upon the attachments, the origin is always named first. For instance, the sternocleidomastoid muscle of the neck has a dual origin ~ above the sternum (sterno) and clavicle (cleido), and it inserts on the mastoid process of the temporal bone.The critical feature through which to surname a muscle is that action. As soon as muscles are called for the activity they produce, one deserve to find activity words in their name. Some instances are flexors (decrease the angle at the joint), extensors (increase the angle at the joint), abductors (move the bone away from the midline), or adductors (move the bone toward the midline).
Muscle surname are based upon many characteristics. The place of a muscle in the human body is important. Some muscles space named based on their size and also location, such together the gluteal muscle of the buttocks. Other muscle names deserve to indicate the ar in the human body or bones with which the muscle is associated, such as the tibialis anterior. The forms of part muscles space distinctive; for example, the direction that the muscle yarn is offered to describe muscles of the human body midline. The origin and/or insertion can additionally be functions used to name a muscle; instances are the biceps brachii, triceps brachii, and the pectoralis major.
Critical thinking Questions
1. Explain the different criteria that add to exactly how skeletal muscles room named.
Glossaryabductormoves the bone far from the midlineadductormoves the bone toward the midlinebitwobrevisshortextensormuscle that rises the edge at the jointflexormuscle the decreases the edge at the jointlateralisto the outsidelonguslongmaximuslargestmedialisto the insidemediusmediumminimussmallestobliqueat one anglerectusstraighttrithree
Answers for an important Thinking QuestionsIn anatomy and also physiology, many word roots space Latin or Greek. Portions, or roots, that the word provide us clues around the function, shape, action, or ar of a muscle.
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