Hydrogen bond is an electrostatic attraction between two polar groups that occurs when a hydrogen atom (H), covalently bound to a highly electronegative atom such as flourine (F), oxygen (O) and nitrogen (N) atoms.

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Because of hydrogen bonds, hydrogen peroxide has higher melting and boiling temperatures than other molecules.


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is most likely to be a liquid at room temperature.

Further Explanation:

Intermolecular forces exist between the molecules or the neighboring particles. These can be attractive as well as repulsive forces.

Classification of intermolecular forces:

1. Dipole-dipole attraction

When a dipole interacts with another dipole, these forces come into play. The charged part of one molecule gets attracted to the oppositely charged part of another molecule and dipole-dipole attractions occur. Such types of attractions are shown by carbon dioxide and hydrogen fluoride.

2. Ion-dipole forces

Such forces result from the interaction of ion and a neutral molecule. This neutral molecule consists of a dipole.

3. Ion-induced dipole forces

An ion induces a dipole when it approaches a non-polar molecule. The electron arrangement and distribution in the non-polar molecule is disturbed by these forces.

4. Dispersion forces

Atoms and molecules exist because of the presence of dispersion forces in between them. Such forces are also called Vander Waals or London forces.

5. Hydrogen bonding

When the interaction between a hydrogen atom and a highly electronegative element takes place, hydrogen bonding is said to occur. Hydrogen forms this type of bond with elements like nitrogen, oxygen and fluorine.

There is the presence of hydrogen bonds between the electronegative oxygen atom and a hydrogen atom in the case of hydrogen peroxide

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. Due to hydrogen bonds, it exists in a liquid state. But all other compounds are present as gases at room temperature because these are not able to form hydrogen bonds. The boiling and melting points of hydrogen peroxide are much higher than those of other molecules due to the presence of hydrogen bonds in it.

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Grade: Senior School

Chapter: Ionic and covalent bonding

Subject: Chemistry

Keywords: hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, hydrogen bonds, melting, boiling, intermolecular forces, gases.