Chapter 21. Social Movements and Social Change
Figure 21.1. When civilization join together, such as these 2011 Egyptian protestors, they are engaging in cumulative behaviour. (Photo courtesy of certified dealer 021/Wikimedia Commons)

Learning Objectives

21.1. Cumulative Behaviour

Describe different forms of cumulative behaviour.Differentiate between varieties of crowds.Discuss emergent norm, value-added, and assembling perspective analyses of collective behaviour.

You are watching: Which of the following organizations is not an example of a social movement?

21.2. Society Movements

Demonstrate awareness that social activities on a state, national, and an international level.Distinguish in between different types of social movements.Identify stages of social movements.Discuss theoretical perspectives on social movements, like source mobilization, framing, and brand-new social activity theory.

21.3. Social Change

Explain just how technology, social institutions, population, and the environment can bring around social change.Discuss the prestige of modernization in relation to social change.

Introduction to social Movements and also Social Change

In January 2011, Egypt erupted in protests against the stifling dominion of longtime chairman Hosni Mubarak. The protests to be sparked in part by the transformation in Tunisia, and, in turn, they motivated demonstrations throughout the Middle east in Libya, Syria, and also beyond. This tide of protest motions travelled across national borders and also seemed to spread favor wildfire. There have actually been many causes and factors in beat in this protests and also revolutions, yet many have listed the internet-savvy youth of this countries. Some think that the fostering of social technology — from on facebook pages to mobile cameras — that helped to to organize and document the movement contributed directly come the tide of protests dubbed Arab Spring. The mix of deep unrest and disruptive technologies expected these social movements were all set to increase up and seek change.

What do Arab Spring, Occupy wall Street, civilization for the honest Treatment of animals (PETA), the anti-globalization movement, and also the Tea Party have actually in common? not much, you could think. Yet although they may be left-wing or right-wing, radical or conservative, very organized or an extremely diffused, they room all instances of society movements.

Social movements are purposeful, organized teams striving to work-related toward a common goal. This groups could be attempting come create change (Occupy wall Street, Arab Spring), come resist adjust (anti-globalization movement), or to carry out a politics voice come those otherwise disenfranchised (civil legal rights movements). Society movements produce social change.

Consider the impact of the 2010 BP oil pour out in the Gulf of Mexico. This disaster exemplifies just how a change in the environment, coupled with the usage of an innovation to settle that change, an unified with anti-oil emotion in social movements and also social institutions, led to transforms in offshore oil drilling policies. Subsequently, in an effort to assistance the Gulf Coast’s rebuilding efforts, alters occurred. From grassroots marketing projects that promote consumption of local seafood come municipal governments needing come coordinate v federal cleanups, organizations develop and transition to satisfy the an altering needs that the society. Just as us saw with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, social activities have, throughout history, influenced societal shifts. Sociology look at at these moments v the lenses of three major perspectives.

The functionalist view looks in ~ the large picture, concentrating on the means that all elements of culture are integral to the continued health and viability that the whole. A functionalist could focus top top why social activities develop, why they continue to exist, and what social objectives they serve. ~ above one hand, social movements emerge when there is a dysfunction in the relationship between systems. The union movement emerged in the 19th century when the economic situation no longer functioned to distribute wealth and resources in a path that provided adequate sustenance for workers and also their families. On the various other hand, as soon as studying social movements themselves, functionalists observe that movements must readjust their goals as initial intends are met or they danger dissolution. Number of organizations associated with the anti-polio sector folded after the development of an efficient vaccine the made the an illness virtually disappear. Have the right to you think of an additional social activity whose goals were met? What about one whose purposes have changed over time?

The critical perspective concentrates on the creation and also reproduction of inequality. Someone applying the problem perspective would likely be interested in exactly how social motions are generated through systematic inequality, and also how social readjust is constant, speedy, and also unavoidable. In fact, the problem that this view sees as natural in social relationships drives social change. Because that example, the national Association because that the advance of Colored civilization (NAACP) was founded in the United says in 1908. Partly produced in an answer to the horrific lynchings emerging in the southerly United States, the organization dealt with to secure the constitutional rights guaranteed in the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments, which created an finish to slavery, equal defense under the law, and universal masculine suffrage (NAACP, 2011). When those goals have actually been achieved, the company remains energetic today, proceeding to fight against inequalities in civil rights and also to remedy discrimination practices.

The symbolic communication perspective research studies the day-to-day communication of society movements, the meanings individuals connect to joining in together movements, and the individual suffer of social change. An interactionist examining social activities might deal with social movement norms and also tactics and also individual motivations. Because that example, society movements could be created through a emotion of deprivation or discontent, however people can actually sign up with social motions for a variety of reasons that have actually nothing to perform with the cause. They could want to feel important, or they understand someone in the motion they desire to support, or they just want to be a part of something. Have you ever been motivated to present up for a rally or authorize a petition due to the fact that your friends invited you? would certainly you have actually been as most likely to get connected otherwise?

21.1. Cumulative Behaviour

Flash Mobs

Figure 21.2. Is this a an excellent time had actually by all? part flash mobs may duty as political protests, while others are for fun. This flash mob pillow fight’s purpose was to entertain. (Photo courtesy the Mattwi1S0n:/flickr)

People sit in a coffee shop in a touristy corner of Rome might expect the normal sights and sounds of a liven city. They might be much more surprised when, together they sip their espressos, hundreds of young civilization start streaming into the it s as beautiful as picture square clutching pillows, and also when someone gives a signal, they start pummelling each various other in a huge free-for-all pillow fight. Spectators can lean forward, coffee forgotten, together feathers fly and more and much more people join in. All approximately the square, rather hang out of their windows or stop on the street, transfixed, come watch. After numerous minutes, the spectacle is over. V cheers and the sometimes high-five, the group disperses, leave only damaged pillows and also clouds of fluff in that is wake.

This is a flash mob, a big group of human being who gather together in a spontaneous activity that lasts a restricted amount the time before returning to their regular routines. Technology plays a large role in the development of a speed mob: pick people are texted or emailed, and also the blog post spreads virally till a crowd has actually grown. But while an innovation might define the “how” of flash mobs, the does not explain the “why.” speed mobs often are captured on video and mutual on the internet; frequently they walk viral and become well known. For this reason what leads human being to want to flock somewhere for a substantial pillow fight? Or for a choreographed dance? Or to freeze in place? Why is this appealing? In large part, that is as an easy as the factor humans have bonded together approximately fires for storytelling, or danced together, or join a neighborhood holiday celebration. People seek connections and shared experiences. And a flash mob, pillows included, gives a method to make that happen.

Forms of collective Behaviour

Flash mobs are instances of collective behaviour, non-institutionalized task in i beg your pardon several civilization voluntarily engage. Other examples of collective behaviour can incorporate anything from a group of commuters travelling house from occupational to the trend towards adopting the Justin Bieber hair flip. In short, it have the right to be any group behaviour the is no mandated or regulation by one institution. Over there are 4 primary creates of collective behaviour: the crowd, the mass, the public, and also social movements.

It takes a fairly huge number of people in close proximity to kind a crowd (Lofland, 1993). Examples incorporate a team of human being attending a Neil Young concert, attending Canada day festivities, or joining a praise service. Turner and also Killian (1993) identified four varieties of crowds. Casual crowds consists of world who space in the same ar at the same time, however who room not really interacting, together as human being standing in line at the article office. Conventional crowds are those that come with each other for a reserved event, choose a religious service or absent concert. Expressive crowds are people who join together to express emotion, often at funerals, weddings, or the like. The last type, acting crowds, focus top top a details goal or action, such together a protest movement or riot.

In enhancement to the different varieties of crowds, collective groups can also be established in two other methods (Lofland, 1993). A mass is a relatively large and dispersed number of people through a typical interest, whose members are largely unknown to one another and who are incapable the acting with each other in a concerted method to achieve objectives. In this sense, the audience that the tv show Game of Thrones or of any kind of mass tool (TV, radio, film, books) is a mass. A public, on the other hand, is one unorganized, relatively diffused group of people who share concepts on one issue, such together social conservatives. While this two varieties of crowds are similar, they space not the same. To distinguish in between them, remember the members that a mass share interests whereas members that a public re-superstructure ideas.

Theoretical Perspectives on cumulative Behaviour

Early cumulative behaviour theories (Blumer, 1969; Le Bon, 1895) focused on the irrationality of crowds. Le Bon witnessed the propensity for crowds come break right into riots or anti-Semitic pogroms together a product the the properties of crowds themselves: anonymity, contagion, and suggestibility. On your own, every individual would not be capable of exhilaration in this manner, but as anonymous members that a crowd they were easily swept increase in dynamics that lugged them away. Eventually, those philosophers who viewed crowds together uncontrolled groups of irrational human being were supplanted by thinkers who perceived the behaviour of part crowds together the reasonable behaviour of reasonable beings.

Emergent-Norm Perspective
Figure 21.3. According to the emergent-norm perspective, human being have their own reasons because that joining a parade. (Photo courtesy that Infrogmation of brand-new Orleans/flickr)

Sociologists Ralph Turner and Lewis Killian (1993) constructed on earlier sociological ideas and also developed what is known as emergent norm theory. They believe that the norms experienced by civilization in a crowd may be disparate and fluctuating. They emphasize the importance of these norms in shaping crowd behaviour, especially those norms that transition quickly in solution to an altering external factors. Emergent norm theory asserts that, in this circumstance, world perceive and respond to the crowd instance with their particular (individual) set of norms, i beg your pardon may readjust as the crowd experience evolves. This emphasis on the individual component of communication reflects a symbolic interactionist perspective.

For Turner and Killian, the process begins when people suddenly find themselves in a brand-new situation, or once an existing case suddenly i do not care strange or unfamiliar. Because that example, think around human behaviour throughout Hurricane Katrina. Brand-new Orleans was decimated and also people to be trapped without supplies or a way to evacuate. In this extraordinary circumstances, what outsiders saw as “looting” was defined by those involved as seeking necessary supplies for survival. Normally, individuals would no wade right into a corner gas station and also take canned items without paying, however given that they were all of sudden in a greatly adjusted situation, they developed a norm that they felt was reasonable.

Once individuals uncover themselves in a situation ungoverned by previously developed norms, they connect in tiny groups to develop new guidelines on just how to behave. Follow to the emergent-norm perspective, crowds are not regarded as irrational, impulsive, untreated groups. Instead, norms develop and are welcomed as they fit the situation. When this theory offers insight into why standards develop, it leaves undefined the nature the norms, how they concerned be embraced by the crowd, and also how they spread out through the crowd.

Value-Added Theory

Neil Smelser’s (1962) meticulous categorization of crowd behaviour, referred to as value-added theory, is a perspective in ~ the functionalist tradition based upon the idea that several conditions must be in location for cumulative behaviour come occur. Each condition adds come the likelihood that cumulative behaviour will occur.

The first condition is structural conduciveness, which explains when world are mindful of the problem and also have the opportunity to gather, ideally in an open up area. Structural strain, the 2nd condition, refers to people’s expectations about the situation at your disposal being unmet, leading to tension and strain. The next condition is the growth and spread that a generalized belief, inside a trouble is plainly identified and also attributed to a human being or group.

Fourth, precipitating factors spur collective behaviour; this is the appearance of a dramatic event. The fifth problem is mobilization for action, once leaders arise to direct a group to action. The final problem relates to activity by the agents of society control. Referred to as social control, it is the only way to finish the collective behaviour illustration (Smelser, 1962).

Let us consider a hypothetical example of this conditions. In structure conduciveness (awareness and also opportunity), a team of students gathers top top the campus quad. Structural stress, overload emerges once they feeling stress worrying their high tuition costs. If the group decides the the latest tuition hike is the fault of the chancellor, and also that the or she will lower tuition if lock protest, climate growth and also spread the a generalized belief has occurred. A precipitation variable arises once campus security shows up to disperse the crowd, making use of pepper spray to perform so. When the student body president sits down and passively resists do the efforts to prevent the protest, this to represent mobilization the action. Finally, when regional police arrive and direct students back to their dorms, we have seen agents the social regulate in action.

While value-added concept addresses the intricacy of cumulative behaviour, it additionally assumes the such behaviour is inherently negative or disruptive. In contrast, collective behaviour can be non-disruptive, such together when people flood to a ar where a leader or public figure has passed away to to express condolences or leaving tokens of remembrance. People likewise forge momentary alliances with strangers in an answer to organic disasters.

Figure 21.4. Agents of social control bring collective behaviour come an end. (Photo courtesy that hozinja/flickr)Assembling Perspective

Interactionist sociologist Clark McPhail (1991) occurred the assembling perspective, another system because that understanding collective behaviour that credited individuals in crowds as rational beings. Unequal previous theories, this theory refocuses attention from collective behaviour to collective action. Psychic that cumulative behaviour is a non-institutionalized gathering, whereas collective activity is based upon a shared interest. McPhail’s theory concentrated primarily ~ above the processes connected with crowd behaviour, plus the life bicycle of gatherings. He figured out several instances that convergent or cumulative behaviour, as presented on the chart below.

Table 21.1. Clark McPhail figured out various circumstances of convergent and collective action (McPhail 1991).Type of crowdDescriptionExample

Convergence clustersFamily and also friends who travel togetherCarpooling parents take it several kids to the movies
Convergent orientationGroup all facing the exact same directionA semi-circle roughly a stage
Collective vocalizationSounds or noises made collectivelyScreams on a roller coaster
Collective verbalizationCollective and simultaneous participation in a speech or songSinging “O Canada” at a hockey game
Collective gesticulationBody parts creating symbolsThe YMCA dance
Collective manipulationObjects jointly moved aroundHolding indicators at a protest rally
Collective locomotionThe direction and also rate of movement to the eventChildren running to an ice cream cream truck

As advantageous as this is for knowledge the components of exactly how crowds come together, countless sociologists slam its absence of fist on the large social context the the defined behaviours, instead concentrating on separation, personal, instance actions.

21.2. Society Movements

Social movements space purposeful, organized teams striving to work toward a common social goal. While many of united state learned about social activities in background classes, we have tendency to take for granted the basic changes they brought about — and we might be totally unfamiliar v the trend toward an international social movement. However from the anti-tobacco activity that has functioned to outlaw smoking in windy buildings and raise the cost of cigarettes, come uprisings transparent the Arab world, contemporary movements create social change on a global scale.

Levels of social Movements

Movements happen in our towns, in ours nation, and around the world. The following examples of society movements range from regional to global. No doubt you have the right to think of rather on all of these levels, specifically since modern-day technology has permitted us a near-constant currently of information around the pursuit for social readjust around the world.


Winnipeg’s inside city is well known for that is poor indigenous population, short levels that income and education, and concerns about drugs, gangs, and violence. Not surprisingly, it has been residence to a number of social movements and also grassroots neighborhood organizations gradually (Silver, 2008). Currently, the Winnipeg Boldness Project is a society movement concentrated on giving investment in early on childhood care in the suggest Douglas neighborhood to shot to rest endemic cycles the poverty. Statistics display that 40% of point Douglas kids are not prepared for school by age five and also one in 6 are apprehended by child security agencies. V programs that support families and invest in early on childhood development, children could be prepared for school and not be compelled into the place of having to record up to your peers (Roussin, Gill, and Young, 2014). The organization seeks come “create brand-new conditions to drastically transform the wellness of young youngsters in suggest Douglas” (Winnipeg Boldness Project, 2014).

Figure 21.5. The flag the the Western self-reliance Party, among several local social movements that supported separation from Canada, represents western Canada. (Photo courtesy of HarleyKing/Wikimedia Commons)

At the other finish of the political spectrum native the Winnipeg Boldness job is the heritage of the many conservative and extreme appropriate social movements of the 1980s and also 1990s that supported the self-reliance of west Canada from the remainder of the country. The west Canada Concept, Western independence Party, Confederation of areas Party, and Western Block were all registered political parties representing social movements of western alienation. The National power Program that 1980 was one of the vital catalysts for this movement since it was viewed as a means of securing cheap oil and also gas resources for central Canada at the price of Alberta. However, the seed of west alienation emerged much earlier with the sense that Canadian federal politics was overcame by the interests of Quebec and Ontario. One of the an ext infamous leader of the west Canada ide was Doug Christie that made a surname for himself together the lawyer who safeguarded the Holocaust-deniers Jim Keegstra and Ernst Zundel in well-publicized trials. Part of the routine of the western Canada Concept, aside from west independence, to be to finish non-European immigration to Canada and preserve Christian and European culture. In addition to this extreme-right concerns, however, were many facets of autonomous reform and fiscal conservativism, such as mandatory balanced-budget legislation and also provisions for referenda and also recall (Western Canada Concept, N.d.), which later on became main to the reform Party. The revolutionary Party was western based but did not look for western independence. Fairly it seek to change itself into a nationwide political party ultimately forming the Canadian Alliance Party with various other conservative factions. The Canadian Alliance combined with the progressive Conservative Party to form the Conservative Party the Canada.


A influential national social activity in current years is Idle No More. A group of aboriginal women organized an event in Saskatchewan in November 2012 to protest the Conservative government’s C-45 omnibus bill. The controversial features of the bill the concerned aboriginal people were the government’s lack of consultation v them in provisions that changed the Indian Act, the navigating Protection Act, and also the ecological Assessment Act. A month later Idle No more held a nationwide day of action and cook Theresa Spence the the Attawapiskat very first Nation began a 43-day hunger win on one island in the Ottawa flow near Parliament Hill. The hunger strike galvanized national public fist on aboriginal issues, and numerous protest events such as flash mobs and also temporary blockades to be organized approximately the country. One of chief Spence’s requirements was that a meeting be set up through the element minister and the Governor general to discuss indigenous issues. The consist of of the Governor general — the Queen’s representative in Canada — verified to be the sticking allude in arranging this meeting, however was central to Idle No More’s insurance claims that aboriginal sovereignty and treaty negotiations were matters whose beginnings preceded the establishment of the Canadian state. Cook Spence ended her hunger strike with the signing of a 13-point declaration the demanded commitments from the federal government to evaluation Bills C-45 and C-38, ensure indigenous consultation on federal government legislation, start an enquiry right into missing indigenous women, and improve treaty negotiations, aboriginal housing, and also education, amongst other commitments (CBC, 2013a; 2013b).

Comparisons between Idle No an ext and the current Occupy activity emphasized the diffuse, grassroots natures of the movements and also their non-hierarchical structures. Idle No an ext emerged outside, and in some respects in opposition to, the Assembly of first Nations. It was an ext focused than the Occupy motion in the feeling that it developed in response to certain legislation (Bill C-45), but as it grew it came to be both more comprehensive in its comes to and much more radical in its needs for aboriginal sovereignty and self-determination. That was likewise seen to have the very same organizational difficulties as the Occupy activity in that the purposes of the motion were left an ext or less open, the management remained decentralized, and also no formal decision-making frameworks were established. Some members of the Idle No More movement were satisfied through the 13-point declaration, while others sought an ext radical options of self-determination exterior the classic pattern the negotiating through the federal government. The is no clear the Idle No More, as a social movement, will relocate toward a much more conventional social-movement structure or even if it is it will certainly dissipate and also be changed by other indigenous movements (CBC, 2013c; Gollom, 2013). Taiaiake Alfred’s post-mortem that the activity was that “the boundaries to Idle No an ext are clear, and many people are start to realize the the kind of activity we have been conducting under the banner of Idle No more is not sufficient in chin to decolonize this nation or also to do meaningful adjust in the resides of people” (2013).

Figure 21.6. The Idle No much more movement. (Photo courtesy of AK Rockefeller/flickr)Global

Despite your successes in bringing forth adjust on controversial topics, social activities are no always about volatile political science issues. For example, the worldwide movement referred to as Slow Food focuses on just how we eat as way of addressing modern-day quality-of-life issues. Slow-moving Food, v the slogan “Good, Clean, fair Food,” is a an international grassroots activity claiming supporters in 150 countries. The movement web links community and also environmental issues ago to the question of what is on our plates and where it came from. Established in 1989 in an answer to the increasing existence of fast food in areas that offered to treasure your culinary traditions, slow Food works to progressive awareness that food options (Slow Food, 2011). With more than 100,000 members in 1,300 local chapters, slow-moving Food is a activity that the cross political, age, and regional lines.

Types of social Movements

We know that social movements can take place on the local, national, or even worldwide stage. Are there other patterns or classifications the can assist us recognize them? Sociologist David Aberle (1966) addresses this question, emerging categories that distinguish amongst social movements based on what they desire to change and just how much adjust they want. Reform movements seek to change something particular about the society structure. Examples encompass anti-nuclear groups, Mothers versus Drunk driving (MADD), and the National action Committee ~ above the status of females (NAC). Revolutionary movements look for to completely change every facet of society. This would incorporate Cuban 26th of July motion (under Fidel Castro), the 1960s counterculture movement, and anarchist collectives. Redemptive movements space “meaning seeking,” and also their score is to provoke inner adjust or spiritual development in individuals. Institutions pushing these movements might include Alcoholics Anynymous, new Age, or Christian fundamentalist groups. Alternative movements are concentrated on self-improvement and limited, details changes to individual beliefs and also behaviour. These encompass groups like the slow-moving Food movement, plan Parenthood, and barefoot jogging advocates. Resistance movements seek to stop or undo adjust to the society structure. The Ku Klux Klan and also pro-life movements autumn into this category.

Stages of society Movements

Later sociologists learned the life bike of social motions — how they emerge, grow, and also in some cases, dice out. Blumer (1969) and also Tilly (1978) outline a four-stage process. In the preliminary stage, civilization become aware of an issue and also leaders emerge. This is adhered to by the coalescence stage when civilization join together and also organize in order come publicize the issue and also raise awareness. In the institutionalization stage, the movement no much longer requires grassroots volunteerism: that is an created organization, frequently peopled with a payment staff. When human being fall away, take on a new movement, the movement efficiently brings about the change it sought, or world no longer take the problem seriously, the movement drops into the decline stage. Each social movement debated earlier belong in among these four stages. Whereby would you placed them on the list?

Social Media and also Social Change: A complement Made in Heaven

Figure 21.7. In 2008, Obama’s campaign used society media to tweet, like, and also friend its means to victory. (Photos courtesy of bradleyolin/flickr)

Chances are you have been asked come tweet, friend, like, or donate virtual for a cause. Probably you were one of the many human being who, in 2010, helped raise over $3 million in relief efforts for Haiti with cell phone text donations. Or possibly you monitor political candidates top top Twitter and also retweet their messages to your followers. Perhaps you have “liked” a neighborhood nonprofit ~ above Facebook, motivated by one of your neighbors or friend liking that too. Nowadays, woven transparent our social media activities, space social movements. After ~ all, social motions start through activating people.

Referring come the ideal kind stages discussed above, you deserve to see that social media has actually the potential to considerably transform how human being get involved. Look at the first stage, the preliminary stage: civilization become mindful of an issue and leaders emerge. Imagine exactly how social media accelerates this step. Suddenly, a shrewd user that Twitter deserve to alert countless followers about an emerging cause or an issue on his or her mind. Concern awareness deserve to spread at the rate of a click, with hundreds of people throughout the globe becoming informed in ~ the very same time. In a similar vein, those who are savvy and engaged with social media emerge as leaders. Suddenly, you execute not need to be a an effective public speaker. You perform not even need to leave your house. Friend can build an audience with social media without ever meeting the civilization you space inspiring.

At the next stage, the coalescence stage, social media additionally is transformative. Coalescence is the allude when human being join together to publicize the issue and also get organized. U.S. President Obama’s 2008 campaign became a case study in organizing through social media. Using Twitter and other online tools, the project engaged volunteers who had typically not bothered v politics, and also empowered those that were an ext active to create still an ext activity. It is no coincidence the Obama’s earlier work experience included grassroots ar organizing. What is the difference in between this form of campaign and also the job-related that politics activists did in neighbourhoods in previously decades? The capability to organize there is no regard come geographical boundaries becomes possible using society media. In 2009, once student protests erupted in Tehran, society media was considered so crucial to the organizing effort that the U.S. State Department actually asked Twitter come suspend scheduled maintenance so the a an important tool would certainly not it is in disabled during the demonstrations.

So what is the real impact of this modern technology on the world? go Twitter carry down Mubarak in Egypt? author Malcolm Gladwell (2010) walk not think so. In an write-up in New Yorker magazine, Gladwell tackles what that considers the myth the social media gets people much more engaged. That points out that most of the tweets relating come the Iran protests were in English and also sent from western accounts (instead of human being on the ground). Rather than raising engagement, the contends the social media only boosts participation; after ~ all, the cost of participation is therefore much lower than the price of engagement. Rather of risking gift arrested, shot with rubber bullets, or sprayed v fire hoses, social media activists have the right to click “like” or retweet a message from the comfort and safety that their desk (Gladwell, 2010).

Sociologists have established high-risk activism, such together the civil legal rights movement, as a “strong-tie” phenomenon, definition that world are far more likely to stay engaged and not run residence to security if they have actually close friends who are additionally engaged. The civilization who dropped the end of the motion — that went home after the danger got too good — did no display any type of less ideological commitment. They lacked the strong-tie connection to other civilization who were staying. Society media, through its really makeup, is “weak-tie” (McAdam and Paulsen, 1993). Civilization follow or friend world they have never met. When these digital acquaintances space a resource of information and inspiration, the lack of engaged personal contact borders the level of danger we will take on their behalf.

Figure 21.8. After ~ a terrible earthquake in 2010, Twitter and the Red Cross elevated millions because that Haiti relief initiatives through phone call donations alone. (Photo courtesy the Cambodia4KidsOrg/flickr)

Theoretical Perspectives on society Movements

Most theories of social activities are dubbed collective activity theories, denote the purposeful nature the this kind of cumulative behaviour. The following three theories are yet a couple of of the many standard and modern-day theories developed by social scientists. Resource mobilization theory focuses on the purposive, business strategies that social motions need to communicate in to properly mobilize support, contend with other social movements and also opponents, and present political claims and grievances to the state. Frame theory focuses on the way social activities make appeals to potential pendant by frame or presenting their worries in a method that aligns with frequently held values, beliefs, and also commonsense attitudes. New social movement theory focuses on the unique features that define the “newness” of postmaterialist social activities like the Green, feminist, and also peace movements.

Resource Mobilization

Social motions will constantly be a part of culture as long as there space aggrieved populations whose needs and interests are not gift satisfied. However, grievances perform not end up being social motions unless social movement actors space able to develop viable organizations, mobilize resources, and also attract large followings. As people will always weigh their choices and do rational choices around which movements to follow, social activities necessarily form under limited competitive conditions: competition because that attention, financing, commitment, organizational skills, etc. Not just will social movements contend for our attention with many other concerns — from the basic (our work or our must feed ourselves) to the broad (video games, sports, or television), yet they additionally compete with each other. For any individual, it might be a an easy matter to decide you desire to spend your time and money on animal shelters and Conservative Party national politics versus homeless shelters and the brand-new Democratic Party. The inquiry is, however, which pet shelter or i m sorry Conservative candidate? To be successful, social activities must develop the organizational capacity to mobilize resources (money, people, and also skills) and also compete with other institutions to reach your goals.

McCarthy and also Zald (1977) conceptualize source mobilization theory together a means to describe a movement’s success in terms of its capability to acquire resources and also mobilize people to attain goals and take advantage of political opportunities. For example, PETA, a social motion organization, is in competition with Greenpeace and also the animal Liberation front (ALF), two various other social activity organizations. Take away together, together with all various other social movement establishments working on pets rights issues, these similar organizations constitute a social activity industry. Multiple society movement industries in a society, though they may have actually widely different constituencies and goals, constitute a society’s social motion sector. Every social movement organization (a single social movement group) in ~ the social movement sector is contending for her attention, your time, and also your resources. The graph in figure 21.9 shows the relationship between these components.

Figure 21.9. Multiple society movement establishments concerned around the very same issue form a social movement industry. A society’s many social movement industries consist of its social activity sector. V so countless options, that will you provide your time or money to? Framing/Frame Analysis

The sudden introduction of social motions that have actually not had actually time to mobilize resources, or evil versa, the failure of well-funded teams to attain effective collective action, calls right into question the focus on source mobilization as an enough explanation for the development of society movements. Over the previous several decades, sociologists have arisen the ide of frames to describe how people identify and understand social events and also which norms they must follow in any type of given case (Benford and also Snow, 2000; Goffman, 1974; snow et al., 1986). A frame is a way in which experience is organized conceptually. Imagine entering a restaurant. Your “frame” automatically provides you v a plot template. It probably does not take place to you to wear pajamas to a fine dining establishment, throw food at other patrons, or spit her drink onto the table. However, eating food in ~ a sleepover pizza party provides you v an entirely different behaviour template. It might be perfectly acceptable to eat in her pajamas, and also maybe even throw popcorn at others or guzzle drinks from cans. Similarly, social movements must proactively engage in realigning collective social frames so that the movements’ interests, ideas, values, and also goals come to be congruent with those the potential members. The movements’ goals have to make sense to people to draw new recruits into their organizations.

Successful social activities use three kinds of frames (Snow and also Benford, 1988) to additional their goals. The an initial type, diagnostic framing, states the social movement problem in a clear, easily interpreted way. When using diagnostic frames, there are no shades of grey: instead, over there is the id that what “they” execute is wrong and also this is how “we” will resolve it. The anti-gay marriage movement is an example of diagnostic framing through its uncompromising insistence that marital relationship is only in between a man and a woman. Any other ide of marriage is framed together sinful or immoral. Prognostic framing, the 2nd type, uses a solution and also states how it will be implemented. As soon as looking in ~ the problem of pollution as framed through the environmental movement, because that example, prognostic frames would certainly include direct legal sanctions and the enforcement the strict government regulations or the imposition the carbon counting or cap-and-trade mechanisms to make environmental damage more costly. As you deserve to see, there might be many completing prognostic frames even within social movements adhering to comparable diagnostic frames. Finally, motivational framing is the contact to action: what need to you do when you agree with the diagnostic frame and believe in the prognostic frame? these frames are action-oriented. In the aboriginal justice movement, a call to activity might encourage girlfriend to join a blockade top top contested indigenous treaty soil or call your neighborhood MP to express your viewpoint that aboriginal treaty civil liberties be honoured.

With therefore many similar diagnostic frames, some groups find it best to sign up with together come maximize your impact. As soon as social movements attach their objectives to the purposes of other social movements and also merge into a solitary group, a frame alignment process (Snow et al., 1986) occurs — one ongoing and also intentional means of recruiting a diversity of participants to the movement. For example, Carroll and also Ratner (1996) argue that utilizing a social justice framework makes it possible for a diverse group that social activities — union movements, ecological movements, indigenous justice movements, gay rights movements, anti-poverty movements, etc. — to kind effective coalitions also if their specific goals execute not commonly align.

This structure alignment procedure involves 4 aspects: bridging, amplification, extension, and transformation. Bridging explains a “bridge” the connects uninvolved individuals and unorganized or ineffective groups with social movements that, despite structurally unconnected, however share comparable interests or goals. These organizations join together producing a new, more powerful social movement organization. Deserve to you think of examples of various organizations v a comparable goal that have banded together?

In the amplification model, institutions seek to expand their core ideas to obtain a wider, much more universal appeal. By widening their concepts to encompass a more comprehensive range, they can mobilize more people for your cause. For example, the slow-moving Food movement extends its arguments in support of local food to encompass diminished energy consumption and reduced pollution, plus diminished obesity indigenous eating more healthfully, and also other benefits.

In extension, social movements agree to mutually promote every other, even when the two social activity organization’s purposes do not necessarily called to every other’s prompt goals. This often occurs when organizations are sympathetic to each others’ causes, also if they are not directly aligned, such as women’s same rights and the civil legal rights movement.

Figure 21.10. Expansion occurs as soon as social movements have sympathetic causes. Women’s rights and racial equality are united as human rights issues. (Photos (a) and (b) courtesy that Wikimedia Commons)

Transformation requires a finish revision that goals. Once a movement has actually succeeded, it risks losing relevance. If it desires to stay active, the movement has actually to adjust with the change or risk becoming obsolete. For instance, as soon as the women’s suffrage movement obtained women the right to vote, they turned their fist to same rights and also campaigning to elect women. In short, the is an advancement to the currently diagnostic or prognostic frames usually involving a full conversion that movement.

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New Social movement Theory

New social motion theory emerged in the 1970s to define the proliferation the postindustrial, quality-of-life movements that are an overwhelming to analyze using traditional social activity theories (Melucci, 1989). Fairly than being based on the grievances of details groups striving to influence political outcomes or redistribute material resources, new social movements (NSMs) prefer the peace and disarmament, environmental, and feminist movements focus on goals of autonomy, identity, self-realization, and also quality-of-life issues. Together the German environment-friendly Party slogan that the 1980s argues — “We room neither best nor left, but ahead” — the appeal of the brand-new social movements additionally tends to cut across traditional class, party politics, and also socioeconomic affiliations to politicize facets of day-to-day life traditionally viewed as external politics. Moreover, the activities themselves are more flexible, diverse, shifting, and informal in participation and also membership than the older society movements, frequently preferring to take on nonhierarchical modes of organization and unconventional way of political engagement (such as direct action).

Melucci (1994) argues that the commonality that designates these varied social activities as “new” is the method in which castle respond to organized encroachments top top the lifeworld, the mutual inter-subjective meanings and also common knowledge that kind the backdrop of our day-to-day existence and also communication. The dimensions of presence that were formally thought about private (e.g., the body, sexuality, interpersonal affective relations), subjective (e.g., desire, motivation, and cognitive or emotionally processes), or common (e.g., nature, city spaces, language, information, and communicational resources) are significantly subject to society control, manipulation, commodification, and also administration. However, together Melucci (1994) argues,