The brain is a marvelous organ. And it"s a hungry one, too. The significant fuel because that the brain is glucose—a carbohydrate. The median adult brain represents around (2\%) of our body"s weight, however uses (25\%) that the glucose in the body. Moreover, particular areas the the mind use glucose at various rates. If you are concentrating hard (taking a test, because that example), specific parts the the brain need a lot of extra glucose, while other parts that the brain only usage their regular amount.

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Monosaccharides

Some foods that are high in carbohydrates encompass bread, pasta, and also potatoes. Since carbohydrates are quickly digested, athletes frequently rely top top carbohydrate-rich foods to allow a high level the performance.

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Figure (PageIndex1): foods that serve as carbohydrate sources.

The ax carbohydrate comes from the truth that the majority contain carbon, hydrogen, and also oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1, making for an empirical formula the (ceCH_2O). This is rather misleading, since the molecules space not actually hydrates of carbon in ~ all. Carbohydrates room monomers and polymers of aldehydes and also ketones that have actually multiple hydroxyl groups attached.

Carbohydrates room the most abundant resource of energy discovered in many foods. The most basic carbohydrates, also called simple sugars, are numerous in fruits. A monosaccharide is a carbohydrate consist of of one street unit. Usual examples of an easy sugars or monosaccharides room glucose and fructose. Both of these monosaccharides are described as hexoses, since they have six carbons. Glucose is abundant in countless plant sources, and also makes up sweeteners such together corn sugar and also grape sugar. Furustos is foundin many fruits, and in honey. These sugars room structural isomers the one another, with the difference being that glucose consists of an aldehyde practical group, conversely, fructose consists of a ketone useful group.

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Figure (PageIndex2): Glucose and fructose are monosaccharides, or an easy sugars.

Glucose and fructose space both very soluble in water. In aqueous solution, the predominant develops are no the straight-chain structure displayed above. Rather, they take on a cyclic framework (see number below). Glucose is 6 membered ring, while fructose is a five-membered ring. Both rings contain an oxygen atom.

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Figure (PageIndex3): The cyclic form of street is the favored type in aqueous solution.

Another essential group of monosaccharides are the pentoses, containing five carbons in the chain. Ribose and deoxyribose space two pentoses the are materials of the frameworks of DNA and RNA.

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Figure (PageIndex4): Ribose and also deoxyribose.

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Summary

Carbohydrates space monomers and polymers that aldehydes and also ketones that have multiple hydroxyl teams attached. A monosaccharide is a carbohydrate consists of one sugar unit. Usual examples of basic sugars or monosaccharides space glucose and fructose. Another important group of monosaccharides room the pentoses, containing five carbons in the chain; DNA and also RNA are partly comprised of pentoses.

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