Describe oogenesis, its partnership to follicular maturation, and also the duties of pituitary and also ovarian factors in your regulation.Describe gonadotropin control of ovarian function.List the target organs and also principal physiologic action of estrogen and progesterone and how they connect with every other.Describe the cellular instrument of action for estrogen and progesterone.Describe the endometrial (proliferative and also secretory phases) and also ovarian events that take place throughout the menstrual cycle and also correlate them through the changes in blood levels of pituitary and ovarian hormones.Identify the pathways that sperm and also egg transport compelled for fertilization and also for activity of the embryo come the uterus.Describe the major endocrine attributes of the placenta, specifically in rescue that the corpus luteum and also maintenance the pregnancy, and also the fetal adrenal-placental interactions involved in estrogen production.Understand the duties of oxytocin, relaxin, and prostaglandins in the initiation and also maintenance the parturition.Explain the hormonal regulation of mammary gland advancement during puberty, pregnancy, and lactation, and also explain the mechanisms that control milk production and secretion.Explain the physiologic basis for the effects of steroid hormone contraceptive methods.Describe the age-related transforms in the female reproductive system, consisting of the mechanisms responsible because that these changes, throughout life from fetal development to senescence.

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The principal features of the female reproductive device are to develop the ova for sperm fertilization and to carry out the suitable conditions because that embryo implantation, fetal growth and development, and also birth. Endocrine regulation that the reproductive device is directed by the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Ovarian-derived hormones regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in a classical an adverse feedback pattern. Transparent the ovarian cycle, a selected follicle is created to undergo growth and also development, finishing in ovulation. The remnants of the follicle undergo reorganization right into the corpus luteum, a temporary endocrine organ that dram a central role in preparation and maintenance that the initial step of pregnancy. Parallel alters occur in endometrial morphology and duty throughout the ovarian cycle in ready for implantation of a fertilized ovum. Ovarian and also placental hormones preserve pregnancy and also prepare the breast for lactation. This chapter describes the basic principles the the neuroendocrine regulation the this hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis.


The woman reproductive organs encompass the ovaries, the uterus and also fallopian tubes, and the breasts or mammary glands (Figure 9–1). Your growth, development, and function are under hormone regulation. The ovaries store and also release the ovum and also produce the 2 primary female sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone. Functionally, the ovaries covers an external cortex layer containing different-size follicles and also an within medulla consist of of vascular connective tissue and also hilar cells. The primordial follicle has a major oocyte surrounded by epithelial (pregranulosa) cell separated native the ovarian stroma through a basement membrane. Throughout follicular development, the epithelial cells identify into granulosa cells, and a great of cell from the ovarian stroma is transformed into theca cells. The larger, an ext mature follicles space filled v a transparent albuminous fluid and consist of an exterior fibrovascular coat, linked ...

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