Ionic bonds are among the two primary types of chemical bonds. They create as an outcome of electrostatic attraction in between oppositely charged ions and usually take place between metals and non-metals. When many ions bind together, they create a huge, continuous, 3D structure dubbed the ionic lattice, or crystal lattice.

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Ionic bonding in between oppositely charged ions

What is an Ionic Bond?

An ionic bond is a form of chemical bond created by electrostatic attraction between two oppositely-charged ions. These ions are developed by the transfer of valence electrons in between 2 atoms, generally a metal and a non-metal.

How Are Ions Created?


Ions are created when an atom loses or gains an electron. An atom that gains an electron becomes negatively charged, and is dubbed an anion. An atom that loses an electron becomes a positively-charged cation.

Throughout ionic bonding, two atoms (typically a metal and also a non-metal) exadjust valence electrons. One atom acts as an electron donor, and also the other as an electron acceptor. This process is referred to as electron transport and also creates two oppositely-charged ions.

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An ion is an atom via a net charge

How Are Ionic Bonds Formed?

Oppositely-charged ions have actually a solid electrostatic attractivity in between them. This attraction is the ionic bond, and it enables a positive ion and also an adverse ion to develop a stable ionic compound through a neutral charge.


For example, as soon as a sodium atom meets a chlorine atom, the sodium donates one valence electron to the chlorine. This creates a positively-charged sodium ion and also a negatively-charged chlorine ion. The electrostatic attractivity in between them forms an ionic bond, causing a secure ionic compound called sodium chloride (AKA table salt).

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Ionic bonding in sodium chloride

Examples of Ionic Bonds

Some ionic bond examples include:

NaCl: sodium chloride NaBr: sodium bromide NaI: sodium iodide KF: potassium fluoride KCl: potassium chloride KI: potassium iodide KBr: potassium bromide LiI: lithium iodide Li2O: lithium oxide MgO: magnesium oxide MgS: magnesium sulfide MgSe: magnesium selenide CaCl: calcium chloride CaO: Calcium oxide CaSe: Calcium selenide

What is an Ionic Compound?

An ionic compound typically consists of a metal and a non-metal. When several ions come together, they develop big frameworks referred to as ionic lattices. Ions in an ionic lattice ararray themselves in a consistent, 3D shape via oppositely charged ions beside one one more. This structure is also occasionally referred to as a crystal lattice.

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Structure of an ionic lattice

Properties of Ionic Compounds

In an ionic lattice, the solid electrostatic attraction between the oppositely charged ions acts in all directions, giving them a unique set of properties.

Ionic Compounds Have High Melting and also Boiling Points

Ionic compounds have actually high melting and boiling points. This is because it takes a lot of power to break the ionic bonds, many thanks to the solid electrostatic attractivity between oppositely charged ions.

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Ionic compounds have actually a high melting point

Ionic Compounds Shatter Easily


Ionic compounds are tough however brittle. It takes the majority of pressure to break the ionic bonds that organize them together but, if enough force is used, they shatter easily. This happens because breaking the ionic bonds brings ions of the exact same charge together. The strong repellent forces that exist between ions of the exact same charge provides them fly apart, causing the ionic compound to shatter.

Ionic Compounds Conduct Electricity

A substance have the right to conduct electrical energy if it has charged particles that are totally free to relocate about. All ionic compounds contain charged pshort articles (ions), however they cannot conduct electricity in their solid develop because the ions are not able to move. An ionic substance have the right to just conduct electrical energy if it has actually melted or been dissolved in water, enabling the ions to relocate roughly.

What’s the Difference Between an Ionic Bond and a Covalent Bond?

The two primary kinds of chemical bonds are ionic bonds and covalent bonds, however tright here are some crucial differences in between the two.

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Ionic vs. covalent bonding

Ionic bonds Covalent bonds
Bond between metals and non-metals Bond between non-metals
Involves finish transport of electrons Involves sharing of electrons
Occurs in between ions via considerably various electronegativities Occurs in between atoms with similar electronegativities

Whereas ionic bonds involve the finish move of electrons between atoms, covalent bonds are formed as soon as two atoms share electrons. This commonly takes location in between atoms of the exact same facet, or between 2 aspects that are close to one one more in the regular table. Covalent bonds are many likely to develop between 2 atoms with similar electronegativities (i.e. those through a similar capability to lure electrons). They typically happen between two non-steels, though they may also be observed in between metals and non-metals.

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Ionic bonds are mostly more powerful than covalent bonds because of the electrostatic attractivity that exists in between oppositely charged ions.