classify monosaccharides together aldoses or ketoses and also as trioses, tetroses, pentoses, or hexoses. Distinguish in between a D sugar and an l sugar.

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The naturally occurring monosaccharides contain 3 to 7 carbon atoms every molecule. Monosaccharides of certain sizes may be indicated by names created of a stem denoting the number of carbon atoms and also the suffix -ose. Because that example, the state triose, tetrose, pentose, and hexose denote monosaccharides with, respectively, three, four, five, and also six carbon atoms. Monosaccharides are also classified together aldoses or ketoses. Those monosaccharides that contain an aldehyde functional team are called aldoses; those comprise a ketone functional group on the second carbon atom room ketoses. Combine these group systems gives general names that show both the kind of carbonyl group and the variety of carbon atoms in a molecule. Thus, monosaccharides are described as aldotetroses, aldopentoses, ketopentoses, ketoheptoses, and so forth. Glucose and fructose are details examples of an aldohexose and also a ketohexose, respectively.



Exercise (PageIndex1)

Draw an example of each form of compound.

an aldohexose a ketotetrose

The simplest sugars space the trioses. The possible trioses are shown in part (a) of number (PageIndex1); glyceraldehyde is an aldotriose, while dihydroxyacetone is a ketotriose. Notice that two frameworks are shown for glyceraldehyde. These structures space stereoisomers, and also hence are isomers having actually the very same structural formula however differing in the arrangement of atoms or teams of atoms in three-dimensional space. If you do models of the 2 stereoisomers that glyceraldehyde, you will find that girlfriend cannot location one model on top of the other and have each practical group allude in the exact same direction. However, if you location one the the models in former of a mirror, the photo in the mirror will certainly be similar to the 2nd stereoisomer in component (b) of number (PageIndex1). Molecule that are nonsuperimposable (nonidentical) mirror photos of each other are a kind of stereoisomer referred to as enantiomers (Greek enantios, meaning “opposite”).


These room another type of stereoisomers than the cis-trans (geometric) isomers formerly discussed.

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Sunlight, in general, is no polarized; light from an simple light pear or an plain flashlight is not polarized. One method to polarize plain light is to happen it through Polaroid sheets, special plastic sheets containing carefully oriented organic compounds that permit only light vibrating in a single plane to pass through. To the eye, polarized irradiate doesn’t “look” any different from nonpolarized light. We can detect polarized light, however, by utilizing a 2nd sheet of polarizing material, as shown here.

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Concept review Exercises

What is a chiral carbon? define how enantiomers differ.
1a.jpgwhat functional groups are found in all monosaccharides?