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Key People:Louis-Jacques Thenard...(Show more)Related Topics:acetylcholineNitriteLactoneCarbonatePhosphate...(Show more)

ester, any kind of of a class of essential compounds that react through water to develop alcohols and organic or inorganic acids. Esters derived from carboxylic acids are the many common. The term ester was introduced in the very first half the the 19th century by German chemist Leopold Gmelin.

Carboxylic mountain esters, formula RCOOR′ (R and R′ are any kind of organic combining groups), are generally prepared through reaction of carboxylic acids and alcohols in the existence of hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid, a procedure called esterification. In the reaction the hydroxyl group (OH) the the carboxylic mountain is replaced by the alkoxy team (R′O) the the alcohol.

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The functional group of a carboxylic ester is an acyl team bonded come OR or OAr, whereby R represents an alkyl team and...

The reverse of the esterification reaction is an instance of hydrolysis. Esters may additionally be acquired by reaction of acid halides or acid anhydrides v alcohols or by reaction of salt of carboxylic acids with alkyl halides. One ester may be convert to one more ester through reaction (transesterified) v an alcohol, a carboxylic acid, or a 3rd ester in the presence of a catalyst.

The hydrolysis that esters in the existence of alkalies such as potassium hydroxide (lye) or sodium—a reaction referred to as saponification—is used in the preparation of soaps native fats and oils and also is also used for the quantitative estimate of esters. Wet chemistry fire extinguishers, i m sorry are provided for fires that involve fats and also oils, rely on saponification reaction to convert burning fat to soap, which is noncombustible. Oil paintings may also be affected by saponification, specifically those created using pigments containing heavy metals. Research argues that hefty metals in colors react with oils in repaint to kind soaps; as soon as exposed to humidity (e.g., the initial wet coating of repaint or increased humidity), the soaps can end up being sticky or dissolve, causing damages to the painting.


Carboxylic mountain esters of short molecular weight are colourless, volatile liquids with pleasant odours, slightly dissolve in water. Numerous are responsible because that the fragrance and flavour that flowers and also fruits; for example, isopentyl acetate is existing in bananas, methyl salicylate in wintergreen, and ethyl butyrate in pineapples. These and also other volatile esters with characteristic odours are supplied in fabricated flavours, perfumes, and cosmetics. Certain volatile esters are offered as solvents for lacquers, paints, and varnishes; because that this purpose, huge quantities that ethyl acetate and butyl acetate are commercially produced. Wax secreted by animals and plants room esters created from long-chain carboxylic acids and long-chain alcohols. Fats and also oils are esters the long-chain carboxylic acids and also glycerol.

Liquid esters of low volatility serve as softening agents for resins and also plastics. Esters additionally include numerous industrially vital polymers. Polymethyl methacrylate is a glass substitute offered under the name Lucite and Plexiglas; polyethylene terephthalate is supplied as a movie (Mylar) and as textile fibres marketed as Terylene, Fortrel, and also Dacron.

Esters are likewise formed indigenous alcohols and also such inorganic acids together sulfuric, phosphoric, and nitric acids. Nitrate esters (e.g., glyceryl trinitrate, or nitroglycerin) are explosive. Phosphate esters space biologically necessary (nucleic mountain belong to this group) and are provided widely in sector as solvents, plasticizers, fire retardants, gasoline and oil additives, and also insecticides.

Esters the sulfuric and also sulfurous acids are offered in the produce of dyes and also pharmaceuticals. Dimethyl sulfate, the best-known ester of sulfuric acid, is a dangerous poison.

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The editor of Encyclopaedia surfacetoairnewyork.comThis post was most recently revised and also updated by Kara Rogers, senior Editor.