Amines are molecules the contain carbon-nitrogen bonds. The nitrogen atom in one amine has a lone pair of electrons and also three binding to other atoms, one of two people carbon or hydrogen. Miscellaneous nomenclatures are supplied to derive names because that amines, yet all indicate the class-identifying suffix –ine as shown here because that a few simple examples:


In some amines, the nitrogen atom replace instead replace a carbon atom in an fragrant hydrocarbon. Pyridine (Figure 1) is one such heterocyclic amine. A heterocyclic compound includes atoms of 2 or an ext different facets in the ring structure.

You are watching: Sort the following compounds into one of three groups: amines, amides, or other compounds.

Figure 1. The illustration shows one of the resonance structures of pyridine.

DNA in Forensics and Paternity

The genetic material for every living things is a polymer of four different molecules, which space themselves a combination of 3 subunits. The genetic information, the password for developing an organism, is consisted of in the particular sequence the the four molecules, similar to the way the letters of the alphabet deserve to be sequenced to type words that convey information. The info in a DNA succession is supplied to kind two other types of polymers, among which room proteins. The proteins connect to form a specific form of organism v individual characteristics.

A hereditary molecule is called DNA, which stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. The four molecules that make up DNA are dubbed nucleotides. Every nucleotide is composed of a single- or double-ringed molecule containing nitrogen, carbon, oxygen, and also hydrogen called a nitrogenous base. Every base is external inspection to a five-carbon sugar dubbed deoxyribose. The street is in turn bonded come a phosphate group (-\\textPO_4^\\;\\;3-) When new DNA is made, a polymerization reaction occurs that binds the phosphate group of one nucleotide to the sugar group of a 2nd nucleotide. The nitrogenous bases of every nucleotide stick out from this sugar-phosphate backbone. DNA is actually developed from 2 such polymers coiled about each other and held with each other by hydrogen bonds in between the nitrogenous bases. Thus, the two backbones are on the outside of the coiled pair of strands, and the bases space on the inside. The form of the two strands wound approximately each other is referred to as a dual helix (see figure 2).

It probably makes sense that the succession of nucleotides in the DNA of a cat different from those the a dog. But it is likewise true the the assignment of the DNA in the cells of two individual pugs differ. Likewise, the assignment of DNA in you and a sibling differ (unless her sibling is an similar twin), as perform those between you and also an unrelated individual. However, the DNA order of 2 related individuals are more similar than the sequences of two unrelated individuals, and also these similarities in sequence deserve to be it was observed in various ways. This is the rule behind DNA fingerprinting, i m sorry is a technique used to identify whether two DNA samples came from associated (or the same) individuals or unrelated individuals.

Figure 2. DNA is an essential molecule and the genetic material for every living organisms. (a) DNA is a twin helix consist of of two single DNA strands hydrogen bonded together at every nitrogenous base. (b) This information shows the hydrogen bonding (dotted lines) between nitrogenous bases on each DNA strand and also the method in which every nucleotide is join to the next, creating a backbone the sugars and also phosphate groups along every strand. (c) This information shows the structure of one of the 4 nucleotides that provides up the DNA polymer. Every nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous basic (a double-ring molecule, in this case), a five-carbon street (deoxyribose), and a phosphate group.

Using similarities in sequences, technicians can determine even if it is a man is the father of a boy (the identity of the mom is hardly ever in doubt, other than in the instance of an adopted child and also a potential bear mother). Likewise, forensic geneticists can determine even if it is a crime scene sample of human tissue, such as blood or skin cells, consists of DNA that matches specifically the DNA the a suspect.


Watch this video clip animation of exactly how DNA is packaged because that a intuitive lesson in that is structure.

Like ammonia, amines are weak bases due to the lone pair of electrons on your nitrogen atoms:


The basicity of one amine’s nitrogen atom plays an important role in lot of the compound’s chemistry. Amine functional groups are found in a wide range of compounds, including natural and also synthetic dyes, polymers, vitamins, and also medications such as penicillin and also codeine. Lock are likewise found in plenty of molecules essential to life, such together amino acids, hormones, neurotransmitters, and also DNA.

Addictive Alkaloids

Since ancient times, plants have actually been provided for medicine purposes. One course of substances, dubbed alkaloids, uncovered in many of this plants has actually been isolated and also found come contain cyclic molecules v an amine sensible group. These amines are bases. They have the right to react v H3O+ in a dilute mountain to kind an ammonium salt, and this home is used to extract them indigenous the plant:


The surname alkaloid way “like one alkali.” Thus, an alkaloid reacts v acid. The cost-free compound deserve to be recovered after extraction by reaction with a base:


The frameworks of numerous naturally occurring alkaloids have actually profound physiological and psychotropic results in humans. Instances of these drugs incorporate nicotine, morphine, codeine, and heroin. The plant produces these substances, collectively called second plant compounds, together chemical defenses versus the many pests the attempt to feeding on the plant:


In these diagrams, together is common in representing structures of large organic compounds, carbon atom in the rings and the hydrogen atoms bonded to them have been omitted for clarity. The heavy wedges show bonds that extend out of the page. The dashed wedges suggest bonds that extend into the page. Notice that small changes come a component of the molecule readjust the nature of morphine, codeine, and heroin. Morphine, a strong narcotic used to relax pain, consists of two hydroxyl sensible groups, situated at the bottom that the molecule in this structural formula. Changing one of these hydroxyl groups to a methyl ether group develops codeine, a less potent drug provided as a local anesthetic. If both hydroxyl groups are convert to esters of acetic acid, the powerfully addictive medicine heroin results (Figure 3).

Figure 3. Poppies have the right to be offered in the production of opium, a plant latex that includes morphine native which various other opiates, such together heroin, deserve to be synthesized. (credit: Karen Roe)

Amides are molecules that contain nitrogen atoms associated to the carbon atom of a carbonyl group. Choose amines, assorted nomenclature rules may be offered to name amides, but all incorporate use of the class-specific suffix -amide:


Amides can be developed when carboxylic mountain react with amines or ammonia in a procedure called amidation. A water molecule is got rid of from the reaction, and the amide is developed from the continuing to be pieces the the carboxylic acid and also the amine (note the similarity to development of an ester indigenous a carboxylic acid and also an alcohol discussed in the ahead section):


The reaction between amines and also carboxylic acids to kind amides is biologically important. It is through this reaction the amino acids (molecules comprise both amine and carboxylic mountain substituents) attach together in a polymer to kind proteins.

Proteins and Enzymes

Proteins are huge biological molecules comprised of long chains of smaller sized molecules called amino acids. Organisms count on proteins because that a range of functions—proteins transport molecules across cell membranes, replicate DNA, and catalyze metabolic reactions, come name just a couple of of their functions. The properties of protein are features of the combination of amino acids that write them and also can vary greatly. Interactions in between amino acid sequences in the chains of proteins an outcome in the urgent of the chain into specific, three-dimensional structures that recognize the protein’s activity.

Amino acids space organic molecules the contain an amine functional group (–NH2), a carboxylic mountain functional group (–COOH), and also a side chain (that is details to each individual amino acid). Most living things develop proteins indigenous the same 20 different amino acids. Amino acids attach by the formation of a peptide bond, i beg your pardon is a covalent shortcut formed between two amino acids when the carboxylic acid group of one amino mountain reacts v the amine team of the various other amino acid. The development of the bond outcomes in the manufacturing of a molecule the water (in general, reactions that result in the production of water once two other molecules combine are referred to as condensation reactions). The result bond—between the carbonyl team carbon atom and the amine nitrogen atom is referred to as a peptide attach or peptide bond. Because each of the original amino acids has an unreacted team (one has an unreacted amine and the other an unreacted carboxylic acid), an ext peptide binding can type to various other amino acids, expanding the structure. (Figure 4) A chain of connected amino acids is dubbed a polypeptide. Protein contain at the very least one lengthy polypeptide chain.

Figure 4. This condensation reaction creates a dipeptide from 2 amino acids and also leads to the development of water.

Enzymes are huge biological molecules, largely composed that proteins, which space responsible because that the countless metabolic procedures that occur in life organisms. Enzymes room highly details catalysts; they speed up the prices of certain reactions. Enzymes function by lowering the activation power of the reaction they are catalyzing, i beg your pardon can substantially increase the price of the reaction. Most reactions catalytic analysis by enzymes have rates that are millions of times faster than the noncatalyzed version. Favor all catalysts, enzymes space not consumed during the reactions that they catalyze. Enzymes perform differ from various other catalysts in how specific they room for their substrates (the molecules that an enzyme will convert into a different product). Each enzyme is only capable of accelerating one or a couple of very particular reactions or types of reactions. Due to the fact that the duty of enzyme is for this reason specific, the absence or malfunctioning of one enzyme can lead to serious wellness consequences. One an illness that is the result of an enzyme breakdown is phenylketonuria. In this disease, the enzyme the catalyzes the an initial step in the deterioration of the amino mountain phenylalanine is not sensible (Figure 5). Untreated, this deserve to lead to an buildup of phenylalanine, which can lead to pundit disabilities.

Figure 5. A computer system rendering shows the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase. In the an illness phenylketonuria, a defect in the form of phenylalanine hydroxylase causes it to lose its function in breaking under phenylalanine.


Kevlar (Figure 6) is a fabricated polymer made from two monomers 1,4-phenylene-diamine and also terephthaloyl chloride (Kevlar is a registered trademark of DuPont). Kevlar’s first commercial usage was as a replacement for stole in racing tires. Kevlar is commonly spun right into ropes or fibers. The material has a high tensile strength-to-weight ratio (it is about 5 times more powerful than an same weight of steel), making it beneficial for numerous applications indigenous bicycle tires to sails to body armor.

Figure 6. This illustration shows the formula for polymeric Kevlar.

The product owes lot of its strength to hydrogen bonds in between polymer chains (refer ago to the chapter on intermolecular interactions). This bonds form between the carbonyl group oxygen atom (which has actually a partial an adverse charge due to oxygen’s electronegativity) top top one monomer and the partly positively fee hydrogen atom in the N–H bond of an adjacent monomer in the polymer framework (see dashed line in number 7). Over there is added strength acquired from the interaction between the unhybridized p orbitals in the six-membered rings, called aromatic stacking.

Figure 7. The diagram shows the polymer framework of Kevlar, with hydrogen bonds in between polymer chains represented by dotted lines.

Kevlar might be best known as a ingredient of body armor, combat helmets, and face masks. Since the 1980s, the united state military has used Kevlar together a component of the PASGT (personal armor mechanism for floor troops) helmet and also vest. Kevlar is additionally used to defend armored fighting vehicles and also aircraft carriers. Civilian applications include protective equipment for emergency organization personnel such as body armor for police officers and heat-resistant garments for fire fighters. Kevlar based garments is substantially lighter and also thinner than equivalent equipment made from other products (Figure 8).

Figure 8. (a) these soldiers are sorting with pieces that a Kevlar helmet that helped absorb a grenade blast. Kevlar is likewise used to do (b) canoes and also (c) marine mooring lines. (credit a: modification of work-related by “Cla68”/Wikimedia Commons; credit b: change of work by “OakleyOriginals”/Flickr; credit transaction c: modification of occupational by Casey H. Kyhl)

In enhancement to that is better-known uses, Kevlar is additionally often offered in cryogenics for its very low thermal conductivity (along v its high strength). Kevlar maintains that high strength as soon as cooled come the temperature of liquid nitrogen (–196 °C).

The table right here summarizes the structures disputed in this chapter:


Key Concepts and Summary

The enhancement of nitrogen into an organic structure leads to two households of molecules. Compounds containing a nitrogen atom external inspection in a hydrocarbon structure are classified together amines. Compound that have actually a nitrogen atom bonded to one side of a carbonyl group are classified as amides. Amines space a straightforward functional group. Amines and also carboxylic acids can incorporate in a condensation reaction to form amides.

Chemistry finish of chapter Exercises

Write the Lewis structures of both isomers through the formula C2H7N.What is the molecule structure about the nitrogen atom in trimethyl amine and also in the trimethyl ammonium ion, (CH3)3NH+? What is the hybridization that the nitrogen atom in trimethyl amine and in the trimethyl ammonium ion?Write the two resonance structures for the pyridinium ion, C5H5NH+.Draw Lewis structures for pyridine and also its conjugate acid, the pyridinium ion, C5H5NH+. What are the geometries and hybridizations around the nitrogen atom in pyridine and also in the pyridinium ion?Write the Lewis frameworks of every isomers v the formula C3H7ON the contain one amide linkage.Write two complete well balanced equations because that the following reaction, one using condensed formulas and one using Lewis structures.

Methyl amine is included to a systems of HCl.

Write two complete, balanced equations because that each that the complying with reactions, one using condensed formulas and also one making use of Lewis structures.

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Ethylammonium chloride is added to a systems of sodium hydroxide.


amineorganic molecule in i beg your pardon a nitrogen atom is external inspection to one or more alkyl groupamideorganic molecule that attributes a nitrogen atom connected to the carbon atom in a carbonyl group


Answers to Chemistry finish of chapter Exercises

2. Trimethyl amine: trigonal pyramidal, sp3; trimethyl ammonium ion: tetrahedral, sp3



6. \\textCH_3\\textNH_2\\;+\\;\\textH_3\\textO^+\\;\\longrightarrow\\;\\textCH_3\\textNH_3^+\\;+\\;\\textH_2\\textO


8. \\textCH_3\\underline\\textC\\textH = \\underline\\textC\\textHCH_3(sp^2)\\;+\\;\\textCl\\;\\longrightarrow\\;\\textCH_3\\underline\\textC\\textH(Cl)H(Cl)CH_3(sp^3);