Maslow’s Humanistic concept of Personality
Maslow’s humanistic concept of personality claims that people accomplish their full potential by relocating from straightforward needs come self-actualization.
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Key TakeawaysKey PointsAs a leader of mankind psychology, Abraham Maslow approached the research of personality by concentrating on subjective experiences, cost-free will, and the natural drive toward self-actualization .Maslow broadened the field of mankind psychology to incorporate an explanation of how human needs change throughout an individual’s lifespan, and how these needs affect the advancement of personality.Maslow’s pecking order of demands ranks person needs indigenous the most simple physical needs to the most advanced needs of self-actualization. A human must acquire and master every level that need prior to proceeding come the following need.Maslow learned the characters of self-actualizers and also found castle had countless things in common; he thought self-actualizers indicate a coherent personality syndrome and stand for optimal mental health and functioning.Maslow’s concepts have been criticized for their absence of clinical rigor, as well as their Western cultural bias.Key Termstranscendence: superior excellence; supereminence.humanistic psychology: A emotional perspective which increased to importance in the mid-20th century in an answer to psychoanalytic theory and also behaviorism; this technique emphasizes one individual’s natural drive in the direction of self-actualization and creativity.self-actualization: according to humanity theory, the realizing of one’s complete potential; have the right to include creative expression, quest for spirituality enlightenment, pursuit of knowledge, or the desire to give to society.
Often dubbed the “third force” in psychology, humanism was a reaction to both the cynical determinism of psychoanalysis, through its focus on mental disturbance, and also to the behaviorists’ watch of people passively reacting to the environment. 2 of the top humanistic thinkers who made developments in the ar of personality psychology to be Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers.
Abraham Maslow’s Humanism
As a leader of mankind psychology, Abraham Maslow approached the examine of personality psychology by focusing on subjective experiences and free will. He was mainly concerned with an individual’s inherent drive towards self-actualization—a state of fulfillment in i m sorry a human is achieving at his or her highest level that capability. Maslow positioned his work-related as a vital complement to that of Freud, saying: “It is together if Freud provided us the sick half of psychology and we must now to fill it out through the healthy and balanced half.”
In his research, Maslow studied the individualities of civilization who he thought about to be healthy, creative, and also productive, consisting of Albert Einstein, Eleanor Roosevelt, thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, and also others. He found that such human being share similar characteristics, such together being open, creative, loving, spontaneous, compassionate, came to for others, and also accepting the themselves.
Personality and also the pecking order of Needs
Maslow is possibly most well-known for his pecking order of requirements theory, in which that proposes that human beings have details needs in common and also that this needs need to be met in a specific order. These needs variety from the most an easy physiological requirements for survival to higher-level self-actualization and transcendence needs. Maslow’s pecking order is most frequently presented visually as a pyramid, through the largest, most fundamental physiological needs at the bottom and also the smallest, most progressed self-actualization requirements at the top. Each layer the the pyramid should be fulfilled before moving up the pyramid to higher needs, and also this process is continued throughout the lifespan.
Maslow’s power structure of needs: Abraham Maslow emerged a human hierarchy of requirements that is conceptualized as a pyramid to stand for how world move from one level of demands to another. First physiological needs should be met prior to safety needs, then the require for love and belonging, climate esteem, and finally self-actualization.
Maslow thought that successful fulfillment of every layer of needs was an essential in the breakthrough of personality. The highest need because that self-actualization to represent the success of our fullest potential, and those people who finally accomplished self-actualization were claimed to stand for optimal emotional health and functioning. Maslow extended the ar of psychological study to incorporate fully-functional people instead of only those v psychoses, and he melted a an ext positive irradiate on personality psychology.
Characteristics the Self-Actualizers
Maslow regarded self-actualizers together the supreme achievers in the person race. He learned stand-out individuals in bespeak to better understand what features they possessed that allowed them to accomplish self-actualization. In his research, he discovered that numerous of these people shared specific personality traits.
Most self-actualizers had actually a great sense the awareness, keeping a near-constant enjoyment and awe of life. Castle often explained peak experiences throughout which they felt together an intense level of satisfaction the they seemed to transcend themselves. They proactively engaged in tasks that would certainly bring around this emotion of unity and meaningfulness. In spite of this fact, many of these people seemed deep rooted in reality and were energetic problem-seekers and also solvers. They developed a level of acceptance for what might not be readjusted and a level that spontaneity and resilience to tackle what could be changed. Most of these world had healthy relationships with a little group with which they interacted frequently. Follow to Maslow, self-actualized world indicate a coherent personality syndrome and represent optimal psychological health and functioning.
Criticism of Maslow’s Theories
Maslow’s concepts have to be criticized for their lack of clinical rigor. Just like all beforehand psychological studies, questions have been raised around the absence of empirical proof used in his research. Since of the spatu nature the the study, the holistic approach allows for a an excellent deal the variation but does not identify enough constant variables in stimulate to it is in researched with true accuracy. Psychologists additionally worry the such severe focus on the subjective experience of the separation, personal, instance does tiny to define or appreciate the impact of culture on personality development. Furthermore, the power structure of needs has actually been accused of social bias—mainly mirroring Western values and ideologies. Critics argue the this concept is taken into consideration relative come each culture and culture and cannot be universally applied.
Rogers’ Humanistic theory of Personality
Carl Rogers’ humanistic personality concept emphasizes the prominence of the self-actualizing propensity in developing a self-concept.
Key TakeawaysKey PointsCarl Rogers was an prominent humanistic psychologist who arisen a personality concept that emphasized the prestige of the self-actualizing tendency in shaping human being personalities.Rogers thought that human beings are constantly reaction to stimuli v their subjective reality ( phenomenal field ), which changes continuously. End time, a person develops a self- concept based on the feedback indigenous this field of reality.In the breakthrough of self-concept, confident regard is key. Unconditional positive regard is an atmosphere that is free of preconceived notions that value. Conditional optimistic regard is full of conditions of precious that must be completed to be taken into consideration successful.Human beings develop an ideal self and also a genuine self based upon the conditional condition of hopeful regard. How very closely one’s real self matches up with their ideal self is referred to as congruity.Rogers believed that totally functioning human being could achieve “the an excellent life,” in which lock constantly aim to accomplish their potential and allow their individualities to emanate from their experiences.Like Maslow’s theories, Rogers’ to be criticized for their absence of empirical proof in research.Key Termsholistic: Relating come the whole instead of a separation right into parts.humanistic psychology: A psychological perspective which increased to importance in the mid-20th century in solution to psychoanalytic theory and also behaviorism; this strategy emphasizes one individual’s natural drive towards self-actualization and creativity.congruity: An instance or point of covenant or correspondence in between the right self and the actual self in Rogers’ humanistic personality theory.phenomenal field: Our spatu reality, all that us are aware of, including objects and also people and also our behaviors, thoughts, images, and ideas.
Carl Rogers: Carl Rogers was a influential humanistic psychologist that is recognized for his concept of personality that emphasizes change, growth, and also the potential for human being good.
Carl Rogers to be a influential psychologist and one that the founding members of the humanist movement. Together with Abraham Maslow, he concentrated on the expansion potential of healthy and balanced individuals and greatly added to our knowledge of the self and also personality. Both Rogers’ and Maslow’s theories focus on individual choices and do not host that biologic is deterministic. Castle emphasized cost-free will and self-determination, through each separation, personal, instance desiring to come to be the ideal person they deserve to become.
Humanistic psychology emphasized the active duty of the separation, personal, instance in shaping their internal and external worlds. Rogers advanced the ar by stressing the the human person is one active, creative, experiencing being who stays in the present and also subjectively responds to existing perceptions, relationships, and encounters. The coined the hatchet actualizing tendency, which describes a person’s straightforward instinct to succeed in ~ his or her highest possible capacity. Through person-centered counseling and scientific therapy research, Rogers created his concept of personality development, i m sorry highlighted totally free will and the an excellent reservoir of human potential because that goodness.
Personality development and the Self-Concept
Rogers based his theories of personality breakthrough on humanity psychology and also theories of subjective experience. He thought that everyone exists in a constantly changing world that experiences that they room at the center of. A human being reacts to alters in their phenomenal field, which includes external objects and people and also internal thoughts and emotions.
The phenomenal field: The phenomenal ar refers come a person’s subjective reality, which contains external objects and people as well as internal thoughts and also emotions. The person’s motivations and also environments both action on your phenomenal field.
Rogers thought that all actions is encouraged by self-actualizing tendencies, which journey a human to achieve at their highest possible level. Together a result of their interactions through the environment and also others, one individual forms a framework of the self or self-concept—an organized, fluid, conceptual pattern the concepts and also values concerned the self. If a person has a optimistic self-concept, they tend to feel an excellent about who they are and also often check out the civilization as a safe and positive place. If they have a negative self-concept, they may feel unhappy through who castle are.
Ideal self vs. Genuine Self
Rogers further separated the self into two categories: the ideal self and the real self. The ideal self is the human that girlfriend would favor to be; the real me is the person you in reality are. Rogers concentrated on the idea the we need to achieve consistency in between these 2 selves. We experience congruence when ours thoughts around our actual self and also ideal self are really similar—in other words, when our self-concept is accurate. High congruence leads to a greater sense that self-worth and a healthy, productive life. Conversely, as soon as there is a an excellent discrepancy between our ideal and actual selves, we suffer a state Rogers dubbed incongruence, which can lead to maladjustment.
Unconditional positive Regard
In the breakthrough of the self-concept, Rogers elevated the prestige of unconditional confident regard, or unconditional love. Human being raised in an environment of unconditional optimistic regard, in which no preconceived conditions of worth space present, have the possibility to fully actualize. When world are elevated in an setting of conditional positive regard, in which worth and love room only offered under certain conditions, castle must complement or accomplish those problems in stimulate to receive the love or positive regard castle yearn for. Their right self is thereby identified by others based upon these conditions, and also they are forced to build outside the their own true actualizing tendency; this contributes to incongruence and also a better gap in between the real self and the appropriate self.
“The great Life”
Rogers explained life in terms of ethics rather than stages of development. These values exist in fluid processes quite than static states. He asserted that a completely functioning human being would continually target to satisfy his or her potential in each of this processes, achieving what he called “the good life.” These human being would enable personality and self-concept come emanate from experience. He uncovered that completely functioning individuals had several traits or tendencies in common:A cultivation openness come experience–they relocate away indigenous defensiveness.An significantly existential lifestyle–living each moment fully, quite than distorting the moment to fit personality or self-concept.Increasing organismic trust–they to trust their very own judgment and also their ability to choose habits that is suitable for each moment.Freedom of choice–they space not restricted by incongruence and also are may be to do a wide variety of choices more fluently. They think that castle play a role in determining their own behavior and also so feel responsible because that their very own behavior.Higher levels of creativity–they will be more creative in the method they adapt to their own circumstances without feeling a should conform.Reliability and constructiveness–they can be trusted to action constructively. Also aggressive needs will be matched and balanced by intrinsic quality in congruent individuals.A rich complete life–they will experience joy and pain, love and heartbreak, fear and courage more intensely.
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Criticisms of Rogers’ Theories
Like Maslow’s theories, Rogers’ to be criticized because that their lack of empirical proof used in research. The holistic approach of humanism allows for a good deal of variation but does not recognize enough constant variables to be researched with true accuracy. Psychologists likewise worry that such an extreme focus on the subjective suffer of the individual does little to describe or appreciate the affect of society on personality development.