It takes a specific amount that heat energy or thermal energy to rotate ice right into water and also water right into steam.

You are watching: How much heat energy is needed to melt 1 gram of ice?

When you warmth a material, you are including thermal kinetic energy to its molecules and usually increasing its temperature. The only exception is as soon as the product reaches the melting suggest or cook point. At those two temperatures, the heat energy goes into changing the state or phase of the material. ~ the state has actually changed, the temperature will climb again with included thermal energy.

The rate temperature transforms is the details heat the the material. The amount of energy required to melt the material is called the latent warm of melting. This all have the right to be depicted in showing how much warm is compelled to adjust ice into water and then readjust the water right into steam.

Questions friend may have include:

What devices of measure are provided in transforming ice right into steam? how is details heat used? just how is latent warmth used?

This lesson will certainly answer those questions. Advantageous tool: systems Conversion

Units the measurement

Since we room measuring the quantity of heat forced to make these changes, we require to understand the interpretations of the various units involved.

Heat transfer

Heat is the full kinetic energy of every the molecules in one object. Although power is commonly measured in joules, a more common unit for warm is the calorie, i beg your pardon is defined as the lot of heat required to change the temperature the 1 gram that water through 1 Celsius degree. There is a conversion variable to relate joules to calories, but we won"t worry about that here.

Note: Calories space abbreviated together cal and grams together g. Also, oC method degrees Celsius.

In the English measurement system, they use the BTU (British heat unit), i beg your pardon is the lot of heat forced to readjust the temperature that 1 pound of water by 1 Fahrenheit degree. The BTU is watched in the united States when referring to the volume of a furnace.

Specific heat

Materials vary in their volume to keep thermal energy. Because that example, a product like iron will warm up much quicker than water or wood. The measure up of how much warm is compelled to change the temperature that a unit mass of a substance by 1 degree is dubbed its specific heat.

There room charts obtainable listing the certain heat of various materials. The chart listed below shows the particular heat of ice, water and steam in units of calorie every gram-degree Celsius.

(Note the all items are provided with the same variety of decimal points. That suggests the same accuracy for each. Also, the zero in front of the decimal point assures the the reader will recognize it is a decimal point and not a fly speck.)

State the water Specific warm in cal/g-oC







Specific warmth of miscellaneous states that water

In other words, it would certainly take twice as plenty of calories to warmth some water one level than it would to warm the same mass of ice cream one degree.

Latent heat

When any type of material is heated to the temperature whereby it transforms state, the temperature will stay the same until every the material alters state. That method ice water will remain at 0oC (32oF) until all the ice is melted. The same thing uses when cooling the materials.

The factor is that power must it is in expended to adjust the state from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas. Likewise, power must be withdrawn to change the state once cooling the material. The amount of power required is contact the latent heat of freeze or boiling. The chart below shows the latent warm or power required to adjust the claims of water.

Change that state the water Latent heat in cal/g

Melting / Freezing


Boiling / Condensation


Latent heat forced to adjust state of water


A great way to know the principles is to settle a problem.

Suppose we have 50g of ice cream at -10oC. We want to heat the product until that all transforms to heavy steam at 110oC. Exactly how much heat is required?

With a problem that is complicated like this one, that is an excellent to break it down into pieces and solve each part individually. This also helps to define the logic provided in the solution.

1. Heating ice

exactly how much warmth would be required to progressive 50g of ice to its melting point?

The ice cream temperature need to be increased 10 degrees to with 0oC.

Since the particular heat of ice cream is 0.50 cal/g-oC, that method that 0.50 calorie is necessary to progressive 1g of ice cream 1oC. Thus, it would certainly take 50 x 0.50 calories to advanced 50g up 1oC and 10 x 50 x 0.50 = 250 cal come raise the ice cream to its melt point.

2. Melting ice

just how much heat would be compelled to melt the 50g that ice?

The latent warm for melting ice cream is 80 cal/g. That method that 1g that ice calls for 80 cal of warm to melt.

Thus, 50g needs 50 x 80 = 4000 cal come melt.

3. Heater water

exactly how much heat is forced to warmth 50g of water indigenous 0oC come its boiling point of 100oC?

Since the details heat that water is 1.00 cal/g-oC, that way that 1.00 calorie is necessary to raise 1g that water 1oC. Thus, it would certainly take 50 x 1.00 calorie to raise 50g up 1oC and 100 x 50 x 1.00 = 5000 cal come raise the water to its cook point.

4. Boiling water

exactly how much warm would be required to boil the 50g that water?

The latent warm for cook water is 540 cal/g. That way that 1g that water calls for 540 cal of heat to boil.

Thus, 50g requires 50 x 540 = 27000 cal come boil.

5. Heater steam

exactly how much warm is required to warmth 50g of steam from 100oC come 110oC?

Since the specific heat of vapor is 0.48 cal/g-oC, that means that 0.48 calorie are needed to progressive 1g up 1oC. Thus, it would certainly take 50 x 0.48 calories to advanced 50g of vapor 1oC and also 10 x 50 x 0.48 = 240 cal to raise the temperature that the heavy steam to 110oC.

6. Total

The full heat required to change 50g of ice cream at -10oC to steam at 110oC is:

250 + 4000 + 5000 + 27000 + 240 = 36490 cal.


Heating products like ice, water and steam increases your temperature. The specific heat of the product determines the calories required to warm one unit of massive one degree.

an altering the state of the material requires extra heat energy that is not supplied to readjust the temperature. The amount of heat compelled to change the state the the product is referred to as its implicit heat. The facility problem of determining exactly how much heat is compelled to change ice right into water and then readjust the water into steam should be damaged into parts and solved individually.

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Resources and references

Ron Kurtus" Credentials


Specific heat Equations - Wolfram scientific research World

Physics Resources


(Notice: The school for Champions might earn rose from publication purchases)

Top-rated books on thermal Energy


Top-rated books on Physics of Temperature


Questions and also comments

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