Ionic Bonding and Electron Transfer

An ionic bond outcomes from the carry of one electron from a steel atom come a non-metal atom.

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Key Takeaways

Key PointsIonic bonds room formed between cations and anions.A cation is developed when a steel ion loser a valence electron if an anion is developed when a non-metal profit a valence electron. Lock both achieve a an ext stable digital configuration v this exchange.Ionic solids kind crystalline lattices, or repeating patterns of atoms, through high melting points, and are typically soluble in water.Key Termselectrolyte: an ionic link which dissolves in H2O, do the result solution qualified of conducting electricity.electronegativity: The tendency of an atom to tempt electrons come itself.cation: A positively fee ion.anion: A negatively fee ion.

Ionic Bonds

Ionic bonding is a kind of chemical bond in i m sorry valence electron are shed from one atom and also gained by another. This exchange results in a more stable, noble gas electronic configuration for both atom involved. One ionic shortcut is based upon attractive electrostatic forces between two ion of the opposite charge.

Cations and Anions

Ionic bond involve a cation and an anion. The shortcut is created when an atom, commonly a metal, loser an electron or electrons, and becomes a confident ion, or cation. An additional atom, generally a non-metal, is maybe to obtain the electron(s) to end up being a negative ion, or anion.

One instance of an ionic link is the development of sodium fluoride, NaF, indigenous a salt atom and also a fluorine atom. In this reaction, the salt atom loses its solitary valence electron come the fluorine atom, which has just enough room to accept it. The ions created are oppositely charged and also are attracted to one another due come electrostatic forces.


Formation that NaF: an electron is moved from Na to F. The result Na+ and F– ions space electrically attractive to every other.


At the macroscopic scale, ionic compounds form lattices, room crystalline solids under typical conditions, and also have high melt points. Most of these solids room soluble in H2O and conduct electrical energy when dissolved. The capacity to conduct electrical power in equipment is why this substances are called electrolytes. Table salt, NaCl, is a good example of this form of compound.

Ionic bonds differ from covalent bonds. Both types result in the stable digital states linked with the noble gases. However, in covalent bonds, the electrons room shared in between the two atoms. All ionic bonds have actually some covalent character, but the larger the distinction in electronegativity in between the 2 atoms, the higher the ionic character of the interaction.


Ionic Bonding – YouTube: In this video, Paul Andersen explains how ionic solids type when cations and anions space attracted.


Lattice Energy

Lattice energy is a measure up of the bond strength in an ionic compound.


Learning Objectives

Describe lattice energy and the components that impact it


Key Takeaways

Key PointsLattice power is defined as the power required to different a mole of an ionic solid right into gaseous ions.Lattice energy cannot be measured empirically, but it can be calculated making use of electrostatics or estimated using the Born-Haber cycle.Two main factors that contribute to the size of the lattice energy are the charge and radius of the external inspection ions.Key Termsexothermic reaction: A process which releases heat into that surroundings.lattice energy: The amount of energy released upon formation of a crystalline ionic hard from gas ions.

Definition that Lattice Energy

Lattice energy is an estimate of the bond toughness in ionic compounds. The is identified as the heat of development for ion of opposite fee in the gas step to integrate into one ionic solid. As an example, the lattice energy of salt chloride, NaCl, is the energy released once gaseous Na+ and Cl– ion come together to form a lattice of alternative ions in the NaCl crystal.

\textNa^+ (g) + \textCl^- (g) \rightarrow \textNaCl (s) \;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\; \Delta H=-787.3\text kJ/mol

The negative sign the the energy is indicative of one exothermic reaction.

Alternatively, lattice energy can be thought of together the energy required to separate a mole of one ionic solid into the gaseous form of its ions (that is, the reverse of the reaction presented above).


NaCl Crystalline Lattice: Sodium ions (Na+) and chloride(Cl–) ions, illustrated in purple and green respectively, alternative in the decision lattice of solid NaCl.


Alternatively, lattice power can be thought of as the power required to different a mole of one ionic solid right into the gaseous kind of its ions (that is, the reverse of the reaction shown above).

Lattice power cannot be established experimentally due to the an obstacle in isolating gas ions. The energy value can be approximated using the Born-Haber cycle, or it deserve to be calculate theoretically through an electrostatic check of the decision structure.

Factors influence Lattice Energy

In 1918, Born and also Lande presented the complying with model because that lattice energy:

E = - \frac N_AMz^+z^-e^24 \pi \epsilon_o r_o (1-\frac 1n)

In this equation, NA is Avogadro’s constant; M is the Madelung constant, which depends on the decision geometry; z+ is the charge variety of the cation; z– is the charge variety of the anion; e is the elementary charge of the electron; n is the Born exponent, a characteristics of the compressibility of the solid; \epsilon _o is the permittivity of complimentary space; and r0 is the distance to the the next ion.

This design emphasizes 2 main factors that contribute to the lattice energy of an ionic solid: the charge on the ions, and also the radius, or size, the the ions. The result of those components is:

as the fee of the ion increases, the lattice energy increasesas the size of the ion increases, the lattice power decreases

Lattice energies are likewise important in predicting the solubility of ionic solids in H2O. Ionic link with smaller lattice energies have tendency to be much more soluble in H2O.


Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe fee on the cations and also anions in an ionic compound can be identified by the loss or get of valence electrons important in order to achieve stable, noble gas electronic configurations.The variety of cations and also anions that are merged in one ionic link is the simplest ratio of totality integers that can be linked to reach electric neutrality.The cation precedes the anion in both the written kind and the formula.Key Termsnoble gas: any kind of of the facets of group 18 of the periodic table, which are monatomic and, through very restricted exceptions, inert, or non-reactive.electrically neutral: A net charge of zero, i beg your pardon occurs once an atom or molecule/compound has no excess or deficit that electrons.empirical formula: The most basic whole-number ratio between aspects in a formula the a compound.polyatomic ion: an ion written of numerous atoms.

Ionic Compounds

An ionic link is developed through the transfer of one or more valence electrons, typically from a metal to a non-metal, i beg your pardon produces a cation and an anion that room bound with each other by an attractive electrostatic force. ~ above a macroscopic scale, ionic compounds, such as sodium chloride (NaCl), type a crystalline lattice and also are solids at normal temperatures and pressures.


Crystalline Lattice: sodium chloride decision lattice


The charge on the cations and anions is established by the number of electrons required to achieve stable noble gas digital configurations. The ionic composition is then characterized by the necessity that the resulting compound be electrically neutral overall.

For example, to incorporate magnesium (Mg) and bromine (Br) to gain an ionic compound, we an initial note the electronic configurations of these atoms (valence level in indicated in italics):

Mg: 1s22s22p63s2

Br: 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p5

In order to attain noble gas configurations, the magnesium atom needs to shed its two valence electrons, while the bromine atom, which has 7 valence electrons, calls for one extr electron to fill its external shell. Therefore, for the resulting link to it is in neutral, two bromine anions must incorporate with one magnesium cation to form magnesium bromide (MgBr2). In addition, though any kind of ratio the 2 bromine atom to 1 magnesium atom will satisfy the two demands above, the formula for ionic compound is generally presented together the empirical formula, or the most basic whole-number ratio of atom with positive integers.

Note that the cation constantly precedes the anion both in written form and in formulas. In the composed form, while the cation name is usually the very same as the element, the suffix that single-atom anions is adjusted to –ide, together in the instance of salt chloride. If the anion is a polyatomic ion, that is suffix deserve to vary, however is generally either –ate or –ite,as in the cases of sodium phosphate and also calcium nitrite, depending upon the identity of the ion.

More examples:

lithium fluoride: Li+ and F– integrate to kind LiFcalcium chloride: Ca2+ and Cl– integrate to kind CaCl2iron (II) oxide: Fe2+ and O2- integrate to kind FeOaluminum sulfide: Al3+ and S2- combine to form Al2S3sodium sulfate: Na+ and SO42- combine to form Na2SO4ammonium phosphate: NH4+ and also PO43- integrate to type (NH4)3PO4potassium chlorite: K+ and ClO2– integrate to type KClO2

Video Summary


Key Takeaways

Key PointsIonic bonding is presented as the complete transfer the valence electrons, commonly from a metal to a non-metal.In reality, electron thickness remains shared between the ingredient atoms, an interpretation all bonds have actually some covalent character.The ionic or covalent nature the a bond is determined by the loved one electronegativities the the atoms involved.Key Termspolar covalent bond: A covalent bond that has actually a partial ionic character to it, together a result of the difference in electronegativity in between the two bonding atoms.electronegativity: A measure up of the tendency of one atom to tempt electrons come itself.covalent character: The partial sharing of electrons in between atoms that have an ionic bond.

Ionic vs Covalent Bonding

Chemical compounds are frequently classified by the bonds between constituent atoms. There are multiple kinds of attractive forces, consisting of covalent, ionic, and also metallic bonds. Ionic bonding models are typically presented as the finish loss or get of one or much more valence electrons from a metal to a nonmetal, resulting in cations and also anions that are held together by attractive electrostatic forces.


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Ionic bonding: The development of one ionic bond in between lithium and also fluorine to type LiF.


Example the a polar covalent bond: when a carbon atom forms a bond through fluorine, lock share a pair of electrons. However, because fluorine is more highly electronegative 보다 carbon, it attractive that common electron pair closer to itself and thus creates an electric dipole. The small letter greek delta written over the atom is supplied to suggest the presence of partial charges. This bond is thought about to have attributes of both covalent and ionic bonds.


In reality, the bond between these atom is more complicated than this version illustrates. The bond created between any two atom is no a purely ionic bond. Every bonding interactions have some covalent character since the electron thickness remains shared between the atoms. The level of ionic versus covalent personality of a link is identified by the distinction in electronegativity between the ingredient atoms. The bigger the difference, the much more ionic the nature the the bond. In the typical presentation, bonds are designated as ionic as soon as the ionic aspect is greater than the covalent facet of the bond. Bond that loss in in between the two extremes, having actually both ionic and covalent character, space classified as polar covalent bonds. Such bonds are thought of as consisting of partially charged hopeful and an adverse poles.

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Though ionic and covalent character represent points along a continuum, these designations space frequently valuable in understanding and also comparing the macroscopic nature of ionic and also covalent compounds. Because that example, ionic compounds generally have higher boiling and also melting points, and they are also usually more soluble in water 보다 covalent compounds.