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Documentary. Exploring the inner human being of the human cellular structure via the stare of a viral epidemic from in ~ the human being of a single cell.

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It bring away 120 trillion cellsto make a human.

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They are the an essential unitsof life,

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making increase our brain, muscles,organs - every part of us.

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In the last decade,

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scientists have actually been able to witnesswhat as soon as seemed difficult -

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the people inside a human cell.

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When ns was a student,

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the idea that we can burrow deepinside a living cell to be unthinkable.

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Recent breakthroughs have make itso scientists can see inside cells

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like never before.

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We have the right to see the components of single cellsand how they job-related together.

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The an ext we learn around theuniverse, the simpler it seems.

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But the cabinet isn't favor that.

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The more we uncover out,the more facility things get.

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But these beautiful worlds are alsoon the front heat of the longest war

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in history.

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This is a fight that goes backinto the depth of time,

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to a time as soon as the earthwas overcame by solitary cellsand viruses.

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Every day, ours cells face theseancient virus enemies,

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tiny, cruel machinesthat death to reproduce.

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There is this entirety mechanism insidecells that space taking out viruses

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that formerly we justdidn't know was there.

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It is a four-billion-year-oldstruggle that has adjusted the course

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of our evolution.

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This fight of these virusesagainst your cells,

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this amazing, epicscience fiction movie,

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it's going on inside your bodyall the time,

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and friend don't also know it.

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Cells space the basic buildingblocks of life tissue,

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and the the smallest unitsof what provides us human.

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And yet...

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..beneath the surfaceof every one lies a people stranger

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than any type of in science fiction.

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A civilization in i beg your pardon a billionmicroscopic machines

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all play their part, working inconcert through every second

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of our life.

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Every one of us in made of 120trillion cells,

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and every one of those cellsis different.

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But they contain the sameinstructions.

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Cells space a bit like babies. Whenthey're born, they all look the same

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but lock change very quickly.

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In different nations they learnto speak various languages,

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and our bodies are choose that- some cells speak heart,

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and part cells speak liver.

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The workers of this incredibleworld space proteins,

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chains of complicated chemicals

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that have the right to lock together totransform into spectacular machines.

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Others job-related to createincredible structures,

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like the internal skeletonthat holds the cell together.

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These great trusses space constantlyadjusting come stresses and strains,

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building and rebuilding to givethe cabinet its shape and strength.

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Then there space the motor-proteins,haulage workers that use

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the cell's skeleton together highwaysto deliver food, chemicals

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and the essential building materialsof life to wherever they are needed.

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They are just one of the astonishingmicro equipments that keep

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this bustling ar healthy.

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Scientists space asked all the time,how perform things in a cabinet know

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how to gain where they're supposedto go to execute their job?

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And for certain cells are very chaoticand things are bumping

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into every other and also mostof that's simply random.

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But enough things gain wherethey're claimed to go

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that the entire system works.

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And powering every this activityare the cell's strength stations.

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Inside this free-floatingstructures referred to as mitochondria,

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turbines spin at over 1,000 timesper minute...

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..recharging billionsof small chemical batteries.

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Everything us do, every heartbeat,

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every movement, every thought,

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is powered by the battery chargedby these cellular strength stations.

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And whatever in this worldworks to a master plan.

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And the setup is protecteddeep in the heart of every cell.

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The cell nucleus is the vault containingthe instruction manual for life.

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DNA.

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DNA is a chain of chemicals,organised into genes.

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Each gene hold the instructionsto develop a certain protein.

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The twin helix containsover 20,000 instructions

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that tell our cell what come makeand when,

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how to organise not simply our cells,but our entire bodies.

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The double helix has actually becomethe symbol of the 21st century,

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and it's pretty exceptional stuff.

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There's six feet that DNA in everycell that the body.

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And if every one of those bits were collection outin a directly line,

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they'd reach to the moonand back thousands the times.

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But this an important chain of chemicalswould it is in useless

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without an army of microscopicmachines that endlessly travelits length,

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repairing it and also transcribing it,

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turning the DNA into instructionsthat the cell deserve to understand.

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Once a gene has been copied,

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the instructions space carriedoutside the nucleus.

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Here, mobile factories check out themand turn them right into proteins.

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Up to two million different kinds,

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each with its own certain shapeand purpose.

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And little goes come wastein the cell.

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Used and also faulty proteins are taggedfor recycling...

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..then chewed personally by powerfulroving shredders dubbed proteasomes,

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reducing lock to small buildingblocks for brand-new proteins.

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But every cell is likewise partof a broader neighbourhood the cells,

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all continuous communicatingwith every other.

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Fragments that shredded proteinsare continuous transportedto the surface.

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Here, they room presentedfor inspection...

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..to it is in monitored through the guardiansof our body's immune system...

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..our white blood cells.

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These roving soldiers checkthe protein fragments for signs

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of damages or infection.

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And because that the moment,everything is in order.

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Every solitary human cell contains

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this human being of breathtakingcomplexity,

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organised by the nuclearmachines at its heart,

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ceaselessly workingfrom instructionswritten down in our DNA.

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But ours cells are underconstant attack,

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and this cabinet is around to facean old enemy...

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..in an encounter that startswith an event so commonplace...

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..you seldom even an alert it.

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Every day our bodiesare continuous bombarded

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by this invisible critters,

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bacteria and viruses.But we have actually our skin,

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it's our first line that defencethat keeps them out.

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But we have actually Achilles heels - we haveopenings come the outside world,

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our mouths, our noses, we touchthings, we rub our lips,

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we obstacle our eyes or wipe our nose.They can acquire in.

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And as soon as they're in, they're in.

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Inhaled from a sneeze,

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an alien military is being carriedinto our body.

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A million invaders,hellbent on destruction.

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This is among our many commonenemies - the adenovirus.

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It's a masterpiece that design,

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and each one has actually a single aim...

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..to breach a cell's defences...

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..and with the nucleus.

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Once inside, any kind of one that theseviruses deserve to take controlof the cell...

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..and give birth 10,000 times over.

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The an outcome could it is in anything,

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from the typical coldto pneumonia - also death.

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But our bodies are prepared.

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As the viruses method the cell,

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they are met by a cloudof resistance.

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Antibodies, Y-shaped proteinsthat identify alien intruders

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patrol the space between our cells,

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looking because that viruses.

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Recognising the invader, castle lockto the virus's armour plating,

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shackling them together,making the viruses basic meat

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for the white blood cells thatfeed ~ above alien intruders like these.

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Antibodies and also white blood cellsform the former line

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of our immune system.

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The immune systemis certainly amazing,

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and the actually advanced to seeinvading microbes

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and get rid of them. However that's justone part of your body's defences.

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Our DNA encodes every theseother features that aid us

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to fight versus virusat every solitary step.

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Despite the body's earlyimmune response...

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..hundreds of thousands of virusesmake it with to our cell.

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But at the surface,they confront their following obstacle...

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..the cell's membrane, or skin.

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The surface of the cabinet isan amazingly facility place.

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There room hundreds, perhaps thousandsof receptor proteins

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sticking the end of the cell and also they allhave a unique role to play.

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Some of them will certainly be justtransporting information

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from external of the cellinto the cell.

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Other receptors can bringwhole cargoes in.

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The surface ar of every cellis a life barrier,

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teeming with security proteinsthat constantly monitor molecules

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as lock enter and leave.

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Small molecules choose water

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and oxygen deserve to simply seepthrough the membrane.

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Larger molecules, favor sugar,

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are permitted entrythrough specialty pumps.

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But the largest deliveriesrequire a special key

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before they room allowedinto the cell.

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These protein keys are recognisedby groups of mobile sentries

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that continually roam the surface.

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This advanced system isdesigned to save harmful molecules

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out that the cell.

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But over billions of yearsof evolution,

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the adenovirus has evolvedits very own key,

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etched right into the end of theseprojecting fibres.

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Antibodies still cling tothe few of these fibres,

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blocking many of the counterfeitkeys - however not all.

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One through one, sentries every overthe cell's surface room fooled.

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And the virus armyquietly slips inside.

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In this old battle because that the cell,it's round two to the virus.

0:16:160:16:21

So, how far back does the go,this cat and mouse game,

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this fight between cellsand viruses?

0:16:330:16:36

Every clues suggestsit goes ideal back

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to the beginnings of life ~ above Earth.

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Wherever life started, veryearly top top there was a divergence,

0:16:420:16:46

two different strategiesthat life followed.

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One of them to be to becomemore complex, to end up being cells,

0:16:480:16:51

to become, ultimately,organisms favor ourselves.

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The other method was come remainsimple - to end up being viruses,

0:16:540:16:58

and to exploit those cells to theirown ends, to replicate themselves.

0:16:580:17:02

Beneath the surface,

0:17:100:17:12

the cell prepares come receivethe deadly invaders.

0:17:120:17:15

Fooled into thinking the the virusis an essential nutrient,

0:17:160:17:20

special proteins slot togetherto kind a spherical mould.

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They pinch the end a bubbleof to move membrane,

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wrapping the virus inside.

0:17:330:17:35

Finally, a different proteinpinches the balloon free,

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delivering the virusinto the cell's interior.

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Unwittingly, the cellhas simply taken a huge step

0:17:500:17:54

towards to its very own downfall.

0:17:540:17:55

Every single memberof this invading virus army

0:18:050:18:09

has the weaponry come ultimatelydestroy this cell.

0:18:090:18:12

Its protein covering is a multi-layeredcloak of deception,

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which has actually still more surprisesin store.

0:18:170:18:20

And at its heart, it carriesa tiny string of DNA,

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its ultimate weapon.

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It's a masterpiece that evolutionand design.

0:18:290:18:32

And however scientistsstill can't decide

0:18:320:18:34

if it's in reality alive or dead.

0:18:340:18:36

At the level of large animalslike ourselves,

0:18:360:18:40

the difference between living thingsand non-living things

0:18:400:18:43

is very obvious.

0:18:430:18:44

Come down a level, though, come cells,and it becomes a bit much more ambiguous.

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For our own cells, of course,you can still phone call immediately

0:18:490:18:52

that they are alive. Come downanother level, though, come the virus,

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and it's no longer obviously alive.They don't watch alive.

0:18:560:19:00

Yet castle behave perhapsas if they are.

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They behave v a sense of purpose.

0:19:030:19:06

A virus isn't strictly alive,

0:19:080:19:10

it can't make more of itselfon that is own.

0:19:100:19:13

It only have the right to replicate if it usesparts the it hijacks indigenous a cell.

0:19:130:19:18

But the cell still has actually a formidablearray that defences

0:19:210:19:25

to keep these killing machinesat bay.

0:19:250:19:27

Every delivery that the cellreceives is taken

0:19:320:19:36

to a sorting station,called an endosome.

0:19:360:19:39

Endosomes process incomingsupplies and decide where

0:19:410:19:45

inside the cellthey will be delivered.

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The an initial step of the processis to break them down.

0:19:500:19:54

The virus military is aboutto be digested.

0:19:570:20:00

The walls of the sortingstations are fitted

0:20:030:20:05

with specialty protein pumps.

0:20:050:20:07

The pumps attract in one-of-a-kind atoms,

0:20:120:20:15

turning the within of the endosomeinto an acid bath.

0:20:150:20:18

The mountain breaks down largenutrients right into smaller molecules

0:20:250:20:30

that are simpler for the cellto transport and use.

0:20:300:20:33

And as the acid eats awayat the virus's external shell,

0:20:360:20:40

it starts to break apart.

0:20:400:20:41

This must spell disasterfor the adenovirus.

0:20:440:20:47

But the mountain is partof its escape plan.

0:20:500:20:53

The virus fibres room the firstto rest away.

0:20:550:20:58

But their disintegrationreleases a one-of-a-kind protein

0:21:010:21:04

hidden inside the virus...

0:21:040:21:06

..that targets the wallof the sorting station...

0:21:080:21:11

..tearing the membrane apartand setting the virus free.

0:21:140:21:19

But not every virus escapes.

0:21:260:21:28

Many still lug antibodieslocked to their surface.

0:21:300:21:34

Their main job was to alertthe immune device to intruders,

0:21:340:21:37

but your firm grip now tiesthe shell together.

0:21:370:21:40

The fibres cannot rest free,

0:21:420:21:44

and the escape protein staystrapped within the shell.

0:21:440:21:48

Countless viruses are consumed awaybefore they can escape.

0:21:530:21:56

But sufficient are released.

0:22:050:22:07

Now over there is nothingbetween this viruses

0:22:070:22:09

and the cell nucleus of the cabinet -their can be fried goal.

0:22:090:22:12

Yet although castle are just fivemicrometres from their target...

0:22:150:22:19

..most can as wellbe a million miles away.

0:22:210:22:25

For 90% of the army,the intrusion will end here,

0:22:350:22:40

floating helplessly beneaththe surface.

0:22:400:22:43

Although they space surroundedby the continuous bustleof moving activity,

0:22:520:22:56

the inert invaders have actually no wayof moving themselves.

0:22:560:22:59

And they have no way of utilisingthe power generated

0:23:050:23:08

by the cells' floatingpower stations...

0:23:080:23:10

..the mitochondria.

0:23:120:23:14

Inside every mitochondrion, thefood us eat and also the air us breathe

0:23:330:23:38

drives countless turbines thatcontinually recharge billions

0:23:380:23:42

of tiny batteries.

0:23:420:23:43

But what is evenmore extraordinary

0:23:450:23:47

is that researchers believethat mitochondria were oncesimple cells themselves.

0:23:470:23:52

Then lock one to be swallowedby another cell,

0:23:540:23:56

firing one of the greatestleaps in advancement -

0:23:560:24:00

complex life.

0:24:000:24:01

To be facility at all,you must have all this machinery,

0:24:030:24:07

all these proteins encoded through genes.

0:24:070:24:09

And come support every one of that requiresa incredible amount the energy.

0:24:090:24:14

All complicated life sharea single common ancestor,

0:24:140:24:17

and that ancestor occurred just oncein four billion years

0:24:170:24:21

of life ~ above Earth.

0:24:210:24:23

For 2 to three billion yearsit was bacteria and nothing else,

0:24:230:24:26

and then this facility cell arose.

0:24:260:24:28

One an easy cell got insideanother straightforward cell,

0:24:280:24:32

it's a an extremely rare occasion in itself.

0:24:320:24:33

And when this happened, it transformsthe energetic possibilities that life.

0:24:330:24:37

Without that energy,evolution might never have actually produced

0:24:390:24:42

the astonishing diversityof life that us see about us.

0:24:420:24:45

Without that energy,we wouldn't see plants and animals,

0:24:450:24:49

we wouldn't see ourselves. The worldwould it is in an virtually sterile desert.

0:24:490:24:54

Throughout each cell, hundredsof mitochondria feed power to power

0:25:080:25:12

the network of protein that make usthe facility creatures that we are.

0:25:120:25:16

The virus has actually evolvedinto a design of efficiency.

0:25:230:25:27

But the simplicity the its designmakes it useless

0:25:270:25:30

without the machineryof facility life.

0:25:300:25:32

But just beneath the surface,large numbers of engine proteins,

0:25:350:25:40

molecular haulage workers,

0:25:400:25:42

await nutrients processedfor delivery by the endosomes.

0:25:420:25:46

And in this billion-yeararms race...

0:26:010:26:04

..the virus has evolvedthe an exact mechanism

0:26:060:26:09

to affix to the cell'smotor proteins.

0:26:090:26:12

Now it have the right to use the energyof the mitochondria.

0:26:230:26:26

The virus is on its way.

0:26:310:26:33

It has actually hijacked the cell'sown transfer system,

0:26:390:26:42

and is being carried towardsthe nucleus and its ultimate prize,

0:26:420:26:46

the DNA makers it needsto take manage of the cell.

0:26:460:26:50

These microscopic motorised legsare a wonder that the natural world.

0:26:580:27:04

Slowed under to one-thirtiethof their common speed,

0:27:040:27:07

their activity is clearly visible.

0:27:070:27:10

But at your actual speed,over 100 measures a second,

0:27:100:27:14

they would appear a blur.

0:27:140:27:15

But speed isn't everything.

0:27:290:27:32

Cells space densely packed,

0:27:320:27:35

and their internal highwaysare littered v obstacles.

0:27:350:27:38

And these motor proteinscan only move in one direction.

0:27:410:27:45

For this virus, it seemsto it is in the end of the road.

0:28:050:28:08

But scientists have recentlydiscovered the virus locks on

0:28:160:28:20

to a 2nd motor protein.

0:28:200:28:22

And this one is developed to movein the opposite direction.

0:28:320:28:36

Together, the 2 motor proteinscan navigate

0:28:520:28:55

around practically any obstacles.

0:28:550:28:57

And once again,the invader benefits.

0:29:010:29:04

The virus is top top the move again.

0:29:220:29:25

And it leads an army of hundreds.

0:29:300:29:33

It's been nearly an hour because theadenovirus an initial attacked the cell.

0:29:590:30:03

The cell nucleus is justone much more hour away.

0:30:060:30:09

Until recently, scientists thoughtthat as soon as the viral army

0:30:110:30:15

was on the march,nothing can stop it.

0:30:150:30:18

But then they found that the cellhas the own inner immune system.

0:30:180:30:23

There is this whole mechanism insidecells that room taking the end viruses

0:30:250:30:29

that previously we justdidn't recognize was there.

0:30:290:30:31

And ns remember the daywe published the document about it,

0:30:310:30:34

I woke as much as hear it being announcedon the nationwide radio

0:30:340:30:37

and then went into a shopto choose up the newspapers

0:30:370:30:40

to find it was on the former page.

0:30:400:30:42

Dotted along the cell'shighway system,

0:31:180:31:21

a unique protein searchesfor anything delivering antibodies

0:31:210:31:25

from the surface.

0:31:250:31:27

The clever thing about thisprotein is it provides systems

0:31:270:31:30

that the cell currently has in place.

0:31:300:31:33

Once it's grounding to the antibody,

0:31:330:31:35

it sends signals to a cellularmachine dubbed the proteasome.

0:31:350:31:38

And the proteasome dram the roleof recycling protein in the cell.

0:31:380:31:42

It gets carried along come the virusand the destroys the virus,

0:31:420:31:45

breaking down all that is partsinto tiny fragments.

0:31:450:31:49

Once attached, the defence proteininitiates a chain reaction,

0:31:490:31:54

attracting specialisedtagging proteins.

0:31:540:31:56

Together, they note the virusfor destruction.

0:31:580:32:01

Then it's just a issue of time...

0:32:110:32:13

..before the recyclers arrive.

0:32:160:32:19

They rip the virus to shreds.

0:32:270:32:30

Somewhere inside her body,this fight is raging right now.

0:33:010:33:06

The exploration of TRIM21provides potentially new ways

0:33:150:33:18

of make therapeuticsto fight viruses,

0:33:180:33:21

and one method this can work is if wefind ways of encouraging the immunesystem to make an ext TRIM21.

0:33:210:33:26

So as soon as the virus entersinto the cell, the TRIM21 is ready

0:33:260:33:30

to recognise the antibodiesand ruin the virus.

0:33:300:33:33

By working together, the defenceproteins and recycling shredders

0:33:430:33:48

can ruin an military of virusesin simply a couple of hours.

0:33:480:33:51

But it just takes a solitary virusto take regulate of whole cell...

0:34:110:34:17

..spreading infectionthroughout the body.

0:34:180:34:21

With no antitoxin attached,

0:34:240:34:26

this virus has actually evadedthe cell's shredders.

0:34:260:34:29

Nothing currently stands between itand the target.

0:34:390:34:43

The virus is now just one thousandthof a millimetre indigenous the nucleus.

0:34:560:35:01

But if it is to achieve its ultimategoal, it first has to obtain inside.

0:35:050:35:10

Compared to the cell,the virus is tiny.

0:35:130:35:16

But yes, really they're simply differentversions that the very same machine,

0:35:160:35:20

and its only job is to copy itself.

0:35:200:35:22

But the virus needs to takeadvantage that our cell mechanism

0:35:220:35:26

for its very own selfish ends.

0:35:260:35:27

At the love of every celllies the nucleus,

0:35:310:35:35

and it is a world every one of its own.

0:35:350:35:37

Its surface ar is make of the samemolecules as the cabinet membrane.

0:35:430:35:46

But entry right into this worldis administrate by completelydifferent gateways.

0:35:480:35:52

Across the surface,

0:35:550:35:57

protein arms find for moleculesto draw inside nuclear pores.

0:35:570:36:01

Through these gateways,billions of chemical messages

0:36:060:36:09

and instructions happen betweenthe DNA and the cell.

0:36:090:36:12

But just if they space recognisedby the protein arms.

0:36:150:36:18

But once again, the viral shellcarries a counterfeit pass.

0:36:250:36:29

The arms lock on, but the virus istoo huge to it is in ferried inside.

0:36:340:36:38

Thinking that they have actually hitan obstruction...

0:36:440:36:47

..the motor proteins shuntthe virus right into reverse.

0:36:490:36:52

Pulled in 2 directions...

0:37:160:37:18

..the virus is ripped apart.

0:37:230:37:25

But what looks like a catastrophefor the virus is, in fact,its masterstroke.

0:37:330:37:39

Now the solitary strand of DNA it heldinside is lugged through the pore,

0:37:580:38:04

and into the cell's regulate centre.

0:38:040:38:07

Inside the human cell nucleusthere are about 23,000 genes.

0:38:270:38:31

They password for thousands and also thousandsof biochemical pathways.

0:38:310:38:35

The virus has actually just gained 40,

0:38:350:38:38

but v those 40it deserve to do exceptional things.

0:38:380:38:40

It's therefore tiny, just a piece of DNA,

0:38:420:38:45

a couple of protein to makeits shell, and also yet it can take over

0:38:450:38:49

and wreak destruction in a hugehuman cell.

0:38:490:38:53

It's brilliant.

0:38:530:38:54

The adenovirus has proven itselfa master of deception...

0:39:060:39:09

..continually exploiting the cell'sprocesses to more its owndeadly aims.

0:39:110:39:16

But its greatest trickis however to come.

0:39:170:39:20

The cell's DNA machines haveno way of informing the difference

0:39:270:39:30

between its very own DNAand the DNA the the virus.

0:39:300:39:34

Blindly, they collection aboutconverting its deadly code

0:39:370:39:40

into countless instructionsfor the cell to action upon...

0:39:400:39:44

..blueprints because that the cell'sown destruction.

0:39:530:39:56

But the devices that turnthe blueprints right into proteins

0:40:260:40:30

lie external the nucleus.

0:40:300:40:32

Out in the main body of the cell,the instructions room met

0:40:360:40:40

by a squadron of mobile proteinfactories, referred to as ribosomes.

0:40:400:40:44

The ribosomes specifically followthe instruction

0:40:470:40:50

and start to constructviral proteins.

0:40:500:40:52

Each is very closely foldedinto a specific shape,

0:40:530:40:56

with a distinct job come do.

0:40:560:40:58

These large cellular machines,ribosomes, are absolutely fundamental

0:40:580:41:02

to life, and also very similar formsof castle are found in every type

0:41:020:41:05

of living cabinet on the planet.

0:41:050:41:07

They check out the hereditary informationand lock decode it,

0:41:070:41:10

bringing in the building blocksthat comprise proteins

0:41:100:41:12

and sticking them together to makethese sensible molecules

0:41:120:41:15

that space going come workinside the living cell.

0:41:150:41:18

Only these useful molecules

0:41:270:41:30

are the kit of parts neededto develop an foe army.

0:41:300:41:33

But the military will notbe constructed out here.

0:41:550:41:57

The raw product for the brand-new armyis drawn ago inside the nucleus...

0:42:080:42:13

..ready for construction.

0:42:160:42:18

With that is mission reachingits climax,

0:42:330:42:35

the virus transforms its attentionto the cell's DNA,

0:42:350:42:38

halting any procedure it doesn't need.

0:42:380:42:41

The virus has takencomplete control.

0:42:450:42:48

And yet the cabinet still hasa tiny window the opportunity.

0:42:550:42:58

Before all normal task stops,

0:43:010:43:04

it has actually just enough time to senda blog post to the outside world.

0:43:040:43:08

This parcel has fragmentsof the famous army.

0:43:270:43:30

The package mergeswith the cell membrane,

0:43:360:43:39

and the enemy fragmentsare thrust to the surface,

0:43:390:43:42

flags warning the the invasionthat has taken place.

0:43:420:43:46

If patrolling white blood cellsspot the distress signal...

0:43:500:43:53

..they will ruin the cell, alongwith the whole alien military inside.

0:43:550:44:00

If not, the epidemic willspread from cabinet to cell, come cell.

0:44:000:44:07

After just one day of occupation,

0:44:160:44:19

the virus has complete controlover the cell.

0:44:190:44:22

With regimen maintenance halted,the cell has actually started come decay.

0:44:230:44:27

And all task is now focusedon structure the brand new viral army

0:44:280:44:34

inside the nucleus.

0:44:340:44:36

The brand-new army self-assembles.

0:44:450:44:47

How execute viruses know just how toinvade ours cells, how to break

0:44:510:44:55

and go into the cell nucleus itself?

0:44:550:44:57

We recognize that viruses and cellsco-evolved together over lengthy periodsof time, however it's an ext than that.

0:44:570:45:03

We're in reality surprisinglyclosely related.

0:45:030:45:06

It turns out that the virusesthat attack us

0:45:060:45:09

are actually made from bitsand pieces of our own cells.

0:45:090:45:12

As ours cells to be evolving,

0:45:120:45:14

as ours nucleus itself to be firstcoming to be,

0:45:140:45:17

so this viruses were cobbledtogether indigenous bits and pieces,

0:45:170:45:20

and they can strike our nucleus

0:45:200:45:22

because they're madeof the very same stuff.

0:45:220:45:24

Already built into the surfaceare the binding sites

0:45:260:45:29

for the cell's motorised legs.

0:45:290:45:31

Fibres snap right into place,

0:45:360:45:38

arming every virus with the keysto enter other cells.

0:45:380:45:42

But this shells are harmlesswithout that is instructions.

0:45:460:45:50

The last component is loaded -identical copies

0:46:040:46:08

of the virus's fatal DNA.

0:46:080:46:10

Carried by an effective motors,

0:46:150:46:18

long strands of DNA space fedinto every single virus.

0:46:180:46:22

All this is the resultof one single virus

0:46:410:46:46

getting through our cell's defences.

0:46:460:46:48

It's been two dayssince the virus gone into the body,

0:46:550:46:59

and the nucleus, as soon as the centreof cellular organisation,

0:46:590:47:03

now harbours an army of10,000 deadly viruses.

0:47:030:47:06

But before it canbegin that is conquest,

0:47:200:47:22

it has to overcome two barriers.

0:47:220:47:24

The army is trapped insidethe tough nuclear membrane,

0:47:260:47:29

held in ~ the centreof the cell itself.

0:47:290:47:32

And then there is the skinof the cell itself.

0:47:340:47:37

The protein factories outsidethe nucleus room instructed

0:47:400:47:43

to build viral saboteurs.

0:47:430:47:45

The an initial are releasedinto the disk cell

0:47:550:47:57

and target the cytoskeleton.

0:47:570:47:59

The effects are cataclysmic.

0:48:050:48:07

Without support...

0:48:110:48:14

the cell starts come collapse.

0:48:140:48:16

Now the virus transforms its attentionto the atom membrane.

0:48:230:48:28

A second protein is released.

0:48:340:48:36

Called the Adenovirus fatality Protein,it burrows into the membrane...

0:48:400:48:44

..and weakens it.

0:48:460:48:48

The nucleus can no longer containthe bulging army.

0:49:010:49:05

Beyond the nucleus,the cell is a wasteland...

0:49:300:49:34

..unrecognisable fromthe harmonious, buzzing community

0:49:410:49:46

of simply 48 hrs ago.

0:49:460:49:47

The cell is now completely helplessto prevent the virus army

0:49:550:50:00

from flooding intosurrounding tissue...

0:50:000:50:02

..attacking adjoining cells

0:50:060:50:10

and spreading infectionthroughout the body.

0:50:100:50:13

The battle for this cabinet is over.

0:50:200:50:24

But the war has actually only simply begun.

0:50:380:50:41

While the virus has been busyinside the cell,

0:50:560:50:59

our antibodies have adaptedand now come ago in force,

0:50:590:51:02

carrying new receptors, tailor-madeto lock top top the escaping army.

0:51:020:51:07

Yet even in these numbers,they cannot avoid every virus.

0:51:090:51:14

But they are not alone.

0:51:170:51:19

The cell's dying article tothe outside human being was not in vain.

0:51:200:51:24

Giant white blood cell flockto the stricken cell

0:51:240:51:28

to devour the escaping hordes.

0:51:280:51:31

They too space learning exactly how to tacklethis particular invader.

0:51:310:51:35

Once the virus has actually been detectedby the immune system,

0:51:350:51:38

there's a heightened levelof protection inside her body,

0:51:380:51:41

and among the outcomes of this isthat the cells the make antibodies,

0:51:410:51:44

and do the best antibodyfor the virus,

0:51:440:51:46

will make several copiesof themselves,

0:51:460:51:48

and climate they will begin pumping outup come 5,000 antibodies every second

0:51:480:51:52

to flood her bloodstream,the spaces between your cells,

0:51:520:51:55

so as the viruses emergefrom dice cells,

0:51:550:51:57

they can obtain tagged through antibodies,then ruined by white blood cells.

0:51:570:52:01

Taking no chances,

0:52:020:52:04

white blood cells engulf nearbycells the may have been infected.

0:52:040:52:08

Meanwhile, surrounding healthy and balanced cellsmake the can be fried sacrifice,

0:52:130:52:18

destroying us to stopthe spread of the virus.

0:52:180:52:22

It is only at this stagethat us become mindful of the battle

0:52:250:52:29

taking location inside us.

0:52:290:52:31

Increasing blood flow bringsmore white blood cellsto the battleground,

0:52:310:52:35

causing our nasal tissueto become inflamed.

0:52:350:52:38

What us feel is a blocked sleep is,in fact, the clearest sign

0:52:380:52:42

of a viral onslaught.

0:52:420:52:44

Once you've had actually an infection,

0:52:460:52:47

one cell, that makes the antibodyfor that infection, will be kept

0:52:470:52:51

inside your bone marrowfor the remainder of her life.

0:52:510:52:53

So the if you ever before get anotherinfection with the same virus,

0:52:530:52:56

the immune system already knowshow to respond,

0:52:560:52:58

it knows what antibody to makeand it have the right to respond really quicklyand stop you obtaining sick.

0:52:580:53:03

Working together, the body's immunesystem finally prevents

0:53:060:53:10

the viral infection from spreading.

0:53:100:53:12

It's one much more battlein an infinite war.

0:53:130:53:16

The struggle in between virusesand oneself is evolution,

0:53:190:53:23

but it's co-evolution -both sides need to change.

0:53:230:53:27

It's a little like one arms race -one party gets better weapons,

0:53:270:53:31

the other party has actually to enhance them.

0:53:310:53:33

Even though the separation, personal, instance cellsare fighting this epic battle

0:53:360:53:40

against viruses, remember,you have trillions of cells.

0:53:400:53:43

And so even if one cabinet losesits war, most of the moment theorganism wins and also we gain better.

0:53:430:53:49

The war is over.

0:54:030:54:05

For now.

0:54:070:54:09

Although countless cells have been lost,

0:54:170:54:20

there are many much more healthy cellswaiting to replace them.

0:54:200:54:23

And in ~ the heart of every one liesan the same copy of our DNA.

0:54:310:54:35

Inherited from our parents,

0:54:410:54:42

and your parentsover plenty of generations,

0:54:420:54:45

our DNA connects us to a household treethat stretches back

0:54:450:54:50

over three billion years,to the very very first cell...

0:54:500:54:53

..a cell that existed lengthy beforehumans, long prior to mammals,

0:54:550:55:00

long prior to the dinosaurs.

See more: How To Use A Circular Saw Without A Table ? How To Use A Circular Saw

0:55:000:55:01

It's a lineage that associate usto every life creatureand plant on Earth.