10 estimate a Variable and also Fixed expense Equation and also Predict Future Costs

Sometimes, a service will should use cost estimation techniques, particularly in the situation of blended costs, so that they can separate the fixed and also variable components, because only the variable components readjust in the brief run. Estimation is also useful for using present data come predict the effects of future transforms in production on complete costs. 3 estimation methods that can be used incorporate the scatter graph, the high-low method, and regression analysis. Right here we will demonstrate the scatter graph and also the high-low techniques (you will find out the regression analysis an approach in advanced managerial audit courses.

You are watching: Given the following cost data, what type of cost is shown?

Functions of expense Equations

The cost equation is a linear equation the takes into consideration complete fixed costs, the solved component of combined costs, and also variable cost per unit. Expense equations deserve to use previous data to identify patterns that past expenses that can then project future costs, or they have the right to use estimated or supposed future data to calculation future costs. Recall the mixed price equation:


When utilizing this approach, Eagle electronics must be certain that that is only predicting expenses for its pertinent range. Because that example, if they need to hire a 2nd supervisor in bespeak to develop 12,000 units, they should go back and change the full fixed expenses used in the equation. Likewise, if variable prices per unit change, these must also be adjusted.

This same method can be supplied to predict costs for service and merchandising firms, as shown by evaluating the prices incurred by J&L bookkeeping to prepare a corporate revenue tax return, presented in (Figure).

Cost information for J&L AccountingCost IncurredFixed or VariableCost
Building rentFixed?1,000 every month
Direct labor (for CPAs)Variable?250 per tax return
Secretarial staffFixed?2,000 every month
Accounting clerksVariable?100 per return

J&L wants to guess their full costs if they complete 25 corporate taxation returns in the month the February.

Determine total fixed costs: ?1,000 + ?2,000 = ?3,000Determine variable expenses per tax return: ?250 + ?100 = ?350Complete the cost equation: Y = ?3,000 + ?350x

Using this equation, J&L have the right to now guess its full costs (Y) for the month that February when they anticipate preparing 25 corporate taxes returns:

\(\beginarraycY=\text?3,000+\left(\text?350\phantom\rule0.2em0ex×\phantom\rule0.2em0ex25\right)\hfill \\ Y=\text?3,000+\text?8,750\hfill \\ Y=\text?11,750\hfill \endarray\)

J&L have the right to now use this predicted complete cost figure of ?11,750 to make decisions concerning how lot to fee clients or just how much cash they must cover expenses. Again, J&L need to be careful to shot not to predict costs outside of the relevant range without adjusting the corresponding total cost components.

J&L deserve to make predictions for their costs since they have actually the data castle need, but what happens when a organization wants to estimate full costs yet has not collected data regarding per-unit costs? This is the situation for the managers at the coast Inn, a small hotel on the shore of south Carolina. They understand what their prices were for June, yet now they want to guess their costs for July. They have actually gathered the info in (Figure).


Demonstration of the Scatter Graph method to calculation Future costs at Varying task Levels

One of the presumptions that managers must do in stimulate to usage the price equation is the the partnership between activity and costs is linear. In other words, costs rise in straight proportion come activity. A diagnostic device that is supplied to verify this presumption is a scatter graph.

A scatter graph shows plots of point out that stand for actual expenses incurred for miscellaneous levels that activity. When the scatter graph is constructed, we attract a line (often described as a trend line) that appears to best fit the pattern of dots. Because the tendency line is rather subjective, the scatter graph is frequently used as a preliminary tool to discover the opportunity that the relationship in between cost and activity is typically a straight relationship. As soon as interpreting a scatter graph, the is necessary to remember the different people would most likely draw various lines, which would lead to different estimations of fixed and also variable costs. Nobody person’s line and cost estimates would have to be best or wrong contrasted to another; castle would just be different. After making use of a scatter graph to identify whether cost and activity have a direct relationship, managers often move on to much more precise processes for expense estimation, such as the high-low technique or least-squares regression analysis.

To show how a firm would use a scatter graph, let’s turn to the data because that Regent Airlines, i m sorry operates a fleet of regional jets offer the northeast united States. The commonwealth Aviation administration establishes guidelines for program aircraft maintenance based ~ above the number of flight hours. Together a result, Regent finds that its maintenance prices vary native month come month through the variety of flight hours, as illustrated in (Figure).


In scatter graphs, price is taken into consideration the dependence variable since cost depends ~ above the level that activity. The task is considered the live independence variable since it is the reason of the sports in costs. Regent’s scatter graph shows a optimistic relationship between flight hours and also maintenance expenses because, as flight hours increase, maintenance costs additionally increase. This is described as a positive linear relationship or a linear expense behavior.

Will all price and task relationships be linear? Only when there is a relationship in between the activity and that specific cost. What if, instead, the expense of snow removal for the runways is plotted against flight hours? suppose the snow removal prices are as listed in (Figure).

Snow remove CostsMonthActivity Level: trip HoursSnow removed Costs


where Y2 is the complete cost at the highest possible level that activity; Y1 is the complete cost in ~ the shortest level the activity; X2 is the variety of units, job hours, etc., in ~ the highest level that activity; and also X1 is the number of units, labor hours, etc., in ~ the shortest level the activity.

Using the maintenance price data indigenous Regent Airlines presented in (Figure), we will examine exactly how this an approach works in practice.

The an initial step in evaluating mixed costs with the high-low method is to determine the durations with the highest and lowest level of activity. In this case, it would be February and May, as presented in (Figure). We constantly choose the highest and also lowest task and the expenses that correspond through those level of activity, also if they space not the highest and also lowest costs.

We are currently able to estimate the variable expenses by splitting the difference between the costs of the high and the low durations by the adjust in activity using this formula:


Using the high-low method, to express the that company maintenance costs as an equation where x represents the gallons of paint produced. Then calculation the fixed and also variable costs.Predict the maintenance costs if 90,000 gallons of paint are produced.Predict the maintenance expenses if 81,000 gallons of paint are produced.Using Excel, develop a scatter graph the the price data and explain the relationship in between gallons of repaint produced and equipment maintain expenses.

(Figure)This cost data indigenous Hickory Furniture is for the year 2017.


Using the high-low method, refer the this firm overtime incomes as one equation whereby x represents variety of invoices processed. Assume BC has monthly fixed expenses of ?3,800.Predict the overtime incomes if 9,000 invoices room processed.Predict the overtime salaries if 6,500 invoices room processed.Using Excel, produce a scatter graph that the expense data and also explain the relationship between the variety of invoices processed and overtime fairy expense.

(Figure)This expense data native Hickory Furniture is because that the year 2017.


Prepare a scatter graph that the shipping data. Plot cost on the vertical axis and also yachts shipped on the horizontal axis. Is the relationship in between shipping costs and unit shipped roughly linear? draw a straight line with the scatter graph.Using the high-low method, develop the cost formula for Carolina Yachts’ shipping costs.The least-squares regression an approach was used and the evaluation resulted in this expense equation: Y = 4,000 + 1,275x. Talk about the accuracy of your high-low technique estimation.What would you calculation shipping costs to be if Carolina Yachts transport 10 yachts in a solitary month? usage the cost formula you obtained in component B. Discuss how correctly this is reflect by the scatter graph girlfriend constructed.What components other than variety of yachts shipped do you think could impact Carolina Yachts’ shipping expense? Explain.

See more: Tuesday, May 28, 2019 Mega Millions 5/28/19, Mega Millions Numbers

(Figure)Gadell ranches produces venison sausage the is spread to grocery stores throughout the Southeast. Castle have accumulated this shipping cost data:


Prepare a scatter graph that the shipping data. Plot cost on the vertical axis and tons created on the horizontal axis. Is the relationship in between packaging costs and also tons produced about linear? attract a directly line through the scatter graph.Using the high-low method, calculation the expense formula for Gadell Farms’ packaging costs.The least-squares regression an approach was used and also the analysis resulted in this price equation: Y = 1650 + 78.57x. Discuss the accuracy of your high-low technique estimation.What would certainly you estimate packaging costs to be if Gadell ranches shipped 10 lots in a single month? usage the cost formula you obtained in component B. Talk about how accurately this is reflect by the scatter graph you constructed.What determinants other than variety of tons created do girlfriend think could affect Gadell Farm’s packaging expense? Explain.


high-low methodtechnique for separating the fixed and variable cost contents of mixed costsscatter graphplot of pairs of number data the represents actual expenses incurred for assorted levels that activity, with one variable on each axis, supplied to determine whether there is a relationship in between them